About Elder Futhark Runic Texts (200 BCE to 750 CE)

(Feb 1, 2023) Map showing the find locations of the oldest form of runestones called "Elder Futhark." They are all north of Switzerland and North Italy which are home of their predecessor Alpine Celtic (Lepontic) texts. These were followed by a letter style known as "Younger Futhark" dating to between 750-1500 CE which is probably when their language changed from Akkadian to Old Norse. Image by Berig via Wikimedia Commons at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Elder_futhark_inscriptions.png. Map is based on information in Jansson (1987). Runes in Sweden, p. 186

List of major Elder Futhark runestones at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elder_Futhark

Comprehensive Rune Site: ARILD HAUGE’S RUNES at: https://www.arild-hauge.com/eindex.htm

Old Vestry at Church of St. Phillack in Cornwall, England

This old vestry is 35 meters east of the church. Phillack is southwest of St. Ives.


Close-up of the letters with Alphabetic Akkadian letter assignments. These are definitely not Latin. This is a mix of Etruscan and Aegean letter styles dating to any time after 550 BCE. This is the same style as used by the later Elder Futhark Runes but the Runic letters are narrower. This text is earlier.

Translation of Phillack Stele

Translation of Top (Right) Row in Akkadian (Rune Text 1)

(read left to right! Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels) Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. IRu  Ya  Qu  Mu  U  Ṣ [word]
  2. Ne  Z'  QaMu  L[D]

In English

  1. Astrological-powers do not thread fertility-fluids when activating [?]
  2. Reveal the Baker (Hu) burning the F[ields]