Lev 36 Zincirli Amulet (730 BCE)
Front Side of Zincirli Amulet
The present amulet (field registration number S. 3604) was excavated during the fourth season (March 20–June 28, 1894) of the German expedition to Zincirli Höyük under the direction of Felix von Luschan. It was first published by Walter Andrae (1943: 146–47, pl. 9c) in the fifth volume of final excavation report.
Image online at: https://id.smb.museum/object/2075086/amulett-gegen-die-d%C3%A4monin-lamaschtu
Back Side of Zincirli Amulet
The present amulet (field registration number S. 3604) was excavated during the fourth season (March 20–June 28, 1894) of the German expedition to Zincirli Höyük under the direction of Felix von Luschan. It was first published by Walter Andrae (1943: 146–47, pl. 9c) in the fifth volume of final excavation report. The museum name for this amulet is: "Amulet against the demon Lamashtu"
Image from: DeGrado, and Madadh. (2017)
Nourishments for Life-Powers Being Blocked by the Astrological Powers.
(Jan. 23, 2023) The letter style of this text is unexpectedly Etruscan indicating a trade link. It is blaming the astrological motion powers for a drought. Because of that drought mention is mostly likely dates to 730 BCE although dates of 850 BCE and 600 BCE also work linguistically (see drought table below)
Translation in Akkadian (Levant Text 36)(read right to left. Capital letters on stone. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)
- Bu GaLu IBu. Ḫu Pu EPu
- BeTu PaLu Tawu ReYu
- Nourishments are being detached by the enemy. Hu (sun god) is opening the drying
- The house (zodiac) is ruling the pasture's (night-sky's) shepherds (magic-crafters)
DeGrado, Jessie and Richey, Madadh. (2017) An Aramaic-Inscribed Lamashtu Amulet from Zincirli. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research 377: 107-33. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/31676727/DeGrado_Jessie_and_Richey_Madadh._2017._An_Aramaic-Inscribed_Lamashtu_Amulet_from_Zincirli._Bulletin_of_the_American_Schools_of_Oriental_Research_377_107-33?email_work_card=view-paper
The website for a more recent excavation is hosted by the university of Chicago. A nice site but all their translations of other texts are wrong because they they were done without following any standards.
Translation Resources Used
All texts translated to the scholar's standard.
Lexicon UsedOlmsted, D.D (January 1, 2022) Mediterranean Akkadian Lexicon 3rd Edition – 2022. DOI Permanent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.17613/nbb6-wg16. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/66851810/Mediterranean_Akkadian_Lexicon_3rd_Edition_2022
Letter Charts UsedLetter Class Comparison ChartCentral Mediterranean Iron Age Letters
Droughts Defined the Archaeological Periods in the Levant
(August 9, 2022) Like most regions of the earth, correlating the archaeology of the southern levant with carbon 14 dating and absolute dating has been undergoing some debate. The best correlation with linguistics is the chronology proposed by Amihai Mazar in 2014. This chronology is reproduced below:
ReferencesLangut, D. Finkelsein, I, Litt, T. (2013) Climate and the Late Bronze Collapse: New Evidence from the Levant. Tel Aviv 40:149-175. Online at https://www.academia.edu/6053886/Climate_and_the_Late_Bronze_Collapse_New_Evidence_from_the_Southern_Levant
Mazar, Amihai (2005) The Debate over the Chronology of the Iron Age in the Southern Levant: its History, the Current Situation and a Suggested Resolution. pp. 15-30 in: T. Levy and T. Higham (editors), The Bible and Radiocarbon Dating - Archaeology, Text and Science. London. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/2632501/The_Debate_over_the_Chronology_of_the_Iron_Age_in_the_Southern_Levant_its_History_the_Current_Situation_and_a_Suggested_Resolution_2005