Acropolis Calf-Bearer Text (480 BCE)
Letter assignments added by Olmsted. The text style is a mix of Etruscan and Greek.
Calf-Bearer Text from Persian Occupied Athens (480 BCE)
(Jan 28, 2023)
Translation in Akkadian (Med Text 6.1)(read right to left. Capital letters on stone. Small inner vowels inferred)
-  M Ba'u Zu PaMu. EṬu EKu EMu | Ḫu'u W Le'u
-  is nesting the emission of night-noises. Darkness supervises starvation | Astrological-owls [1 or 2 words] astrological-powers
In September 480 BCE Persian king Xerxes I joined by many Greeks north of Attica, burned Athens and destroyed the old Acropolis. This destruction was one component of the Greek - Persian War which began in 492 BC as the culmination of the civil strife caused by the drought of 499 and the resulting Ionian revolt. The war lasted until 449 BC.
Early Mesopotamian Calf-Bearer (3300 BCE)
(Dec. 29, 2022) Black Hematite (hard iron oxide) cylinder seal showing images of wealth surrounding two people approaching the god AN. At the top left is and image of the full moon surrounded by stars. Below that are swords pointing downward in a sign of peace. Between the deity and the humans is a plow. A gazelle as a symbol of the land's prosperity is on the shoulders and at the feet of the last human. It reads:
- Pests milk the kingdom
- AN is making wealth abundant so rejoice
- Serve wisdom
Lexicon used for this translation: About This Early-Sign Sumerian Lexicon
Seal now at: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Vorderasiatisches Museum (State Museums in Berlin, Museum of the Near East) Identification number: VA 00243. Seal online at: https://recherche.smb.museum/detail/1744422/einf%C3%BChrungsszene
Translation Resources Used
All texts translated to the scholar's standard.
Lexicon UsedOlmsted, D.D (January 1, 2022) Mediterranean Akkadian Lexicon 3rd Edition – 2022. DOI Permanent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.17613/nbb6-wg16. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/66851810/Mediterranean_Akkadian_Lexicon_3rd_Edition_2022
Letter Charts UsedCentral Mediterranean Iron Age Letters