Southern Phoenician Reconciliation Seal ~ 870 BCE
Stamp Side of Seal with Impression
Oval, pale brown and grey mottled agate-chalcedony scarab-shaped stamp-seal with a slightly domed back. The text style is mid-Phoenician except for one letter which is Israelite. This text style shows some simplifications compared to Black Sarcophagus 1 (Levant 11) so it is more recent. A date of 900 to 850 BCE works.
Top Side of Seal with Impression
Notice its polished domed shape. Now at the British Museum. Museum Number E48502. Acquired from a collector in 1860 so we do not know where it originated.
Online at: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/W_1861-1201-1
(Jan 17, 2023) This text is attempting to reconcile the activities of the life-priests who work with the life powers and the magic crafters which work with the motion powers. Usually the Phoenicians are antagonist towards the life priests while the Israelites are antagonistic towards the magic crafters. This suggests a time when Northern Israel's King Ahab (870-850 BCE) was married to Jezebel who was a princess of Tyre and the two states were attempting to reconcile.
Translation in Akkadian (Levant Text 25)(read right to left. Capital letters on stone. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)
- Ya'u BaRu AYu ABu
- Bu Nâṣu Ba'u Tu
- 'B Ru MuTu TaBu Gi - Letter ayin (') is "A" at the start of a sentence in Phoenician practice. Verb at end so statement form
- Šu ReDu A - the Š is has an Israelite style indicating this was composed in southern Phoenicia
- Yahu is seeing Ayu's life-priests (fathers)
- (Their) nourishments are repelling the nesting of magic
- The Life-Priest's eagle-vultures energize the sacrifice's arousal
- Magical-Correspondences are driving that
CommentYa'u is a variant of Yahu which is the short form of Israel's national god Yahweh. In the Ancient Pagan Paradigm Yahu manifests life forms on earth, that is, fills those invisible forms with amorphous material (dust). The life-priests are literally called "fathers" a tradition which continues in the Catholic Christian church.
The goddess Ayu is the connective life goddess in charge of editing the life network with her eagle vultures. In other cultures she is also known as Ishtar, Inanna, and Hathor. Eagle-vultures are the editors of the life network. "Nesting" a power is to make it inactive. This text is saying that the priest's burnt food offerings (nourishments) prevent the inactivity of the magical motion powers.
Translation Resources Used
All texts translated to the scholar's standard.
Lexicon UsedOlmsted, D.D (January 1, 2022) Mediterranean Akkadian Lexicon 3rd Edition – 2022. DOI Permanent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.17613/nbb6-wg16. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/66851810/Mediterranean_Akkadian_Lexicon_3rd_Edition_2022
Letter Charts UsedLetter Class Comparison ChartCentral Mediterranean Iron Age Letters