Celtic Runestones and Text Sources

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Halstatt material culture is shown in yellow (1200-400 BCE) and La Tene material culture) is shown in Green (450-50 BCE). These terms are material manifestations which existed within the more widespread religious/language Celtic Culture.
Belenus - sun.  Akkadian BL.N  Constrainer.Revealer
Information from Atlas of the Celtic World, by John Haywood; London Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2001, pp. 30-37.By Dbachmann via Wikimedia Commons at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hallstatt_LaTene.png

Origin of Celtic Culture

(Sept 2, 2023)  Celtic culture originated out of the salt trading economy of the Halstatt (yellow) and La Tene (green) Cultures (1300- 500 BCE). The Hallstatt culture originated out of the organization required to mine and trade salt from the salt mines near Salzburg and managing the portage between the Danube and Rhine rivers.  

Celtic (Greek Keltoi) is an Akkadian phrase KL.T (Kalu.Ta) meaning "Motion-Constrainer.of Emotion-Magic"  where "Constrainer" is an epithet for the astrological powers of fate which were one source of motion on earth. The other source was inner emotions. So the Celts were known for their astrological power use to check emotion magic.

By the time of the Celts were known by the Romans and Greeks most of their deity names were made out of Akkadian phrases. This same phenomena also occurred in the Nordic lands with all Norse being Akkadian phrases. Most of the main Celtic deities involve fertility.  The Druids had the concept of invisible "Platonic" universal object shapes long before the Greeks existed. These invisible shapes had to be revealed and manifested.

Some Celtic deities are:

  1. Belenus - Akkadian BL.N  (Belu.Nu) meaning "Life-Constrainer. of Revelations."  According to Greek texts this deity was the sun. In Druid culture the sun represented the life network which directed the divine fertility fluids to trigger life form openings on earth.
  2. Cernunnos  -  Akkadian  ṢR.NN.Na (Ṣeru.NuNu.Nu) meaning Life-powers.Chaos.Revealer.  According to Greek texts this god represented the wild fertility of nature. He was shown as a horned god. In southern areas he was the chaos bull.
  3. Epona - Akkadian EP.N (Epu.Na) meaning Drying.Revealer. According to Greek texts this deity was a horse goddess. In Indo-European cultures horses were thought to pull the chariot containing the sun across the sky. If the sun came to low then the drought would occur and the land would dry out.
  4. Lugh - Akkadian LG (Lagu) meaning attunement as in spiritual communication and connection. He represented skill at business and trade.
  5. Meponos - Akkadian M.P.N  (Mu.Pu.Na) meaning "Fertility-fluid.Opening.Revealer." In order for life to be triggered the feminine had to be opened by the masculine. According to Greek texts this deity represented youth.
  6. Seqana: from Akkadian S.QN (SaQu.Na) meaning "Fabric.Revealer" where fabric is an epithet for the life network which brings life powers to earth.
  7. Taranis: from Akkadian TR.N  (Taru.Na) meaning "Shape.Revealer." From Greek writings he was the chaotic storm form of the Druid sun god Hu. His rain revealed these invisible life forms as it produced fertility.
  8. Toutatis - Akkadian TT.T (TiTu.Tu)  meaning  fruit.magic.  The fruits of the earth needed to be encouraged and promoted by magic. According to Greek texts this deity was a tribal protector.
This video is by Kings and Generals who always produce good historical documentaries although this video is completely wrong in stating that the Druids never wrote anything down. That they say this just shows how deep and thorough the suppression of Druid culture has been. This video points out that "culture" is not consistently used by historians because it can either mean the religious/language culture or the material culture. The two are not necessarily the same. Most archaeologists use it to mean material culture because that is what they work with. In contrast historical linguists use it to mean the religious/language culture of which material culture is a subset. This confustion is addressed in this video.

Celtic Runestone in Phillack, Cornwall, Britain (499 BCE Drought)

Phillack Stele as it Appeared in 2021 Outside Old Church Vestry at Phillack in Cornwall, England

Stele as it Appeared in 2021 Outside Old Church Vestry at Phillack in Cornwall, England

(Feb 20, 2023) This old vestry is 35 meters east of the church of St. Phillack (St. Felicitas) which is southwest of St. Ives on the north coast of Cornwall. The stele is in front by the corner. This building and stele and was registered with English Heritage in 1988 as a class 2 site number 1365625. It was used as a foundation stone in the first St. Phillack church which was torn down and replaced in 1856. So many more such inscribed stones may be still underground as foundation stones of ancient churches.
So why is this British national treasure out in the weather getting destroyed? This should be front and center in the British Museum.
Photo by Emma Trevarthen and found at: https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1365625


Chris Bond (2023) Antiquarian Notes on the Prehistory of Cornwall. Cornovia Press, Sheffield
Richard Edmonds (1857-58) The Celtic and Other Antiquities of the Land's End District of Cornwall. Archaeologica Cambrensis 3:3-4, pages 275-295, 350-368, 66-76, 173-183, 274-283
(The above articles were combined into an 1862 book)Richard Edmonds (1862) The Land's End district: its antiquities, natural history, natural phenomena and scenery. Published by J. R. SmithOnline at: https://openlibrary.org/works/OL11647309W/The_Land%27s_End_district_its_antiquities_natural_history_natural_phenomena_and_scenery?edition=key%3A/books/OL23401670M
Phillack Stele as it Appeared in 1890

Phillack Stele as it Appeared in 1890

The mentioned Richard Edmonds in the above caption said this in his book published in 1862 on page 63:
"An inscribed stone, as old perhaps as the last, formed one of the foundation stones of the late church at Phillack. It is 7 3/4 feet long, and now stands outside the wall of the vestry, in the southeastern corner of the courtyard but the inscription appears to be illegible."
Photo found in Bond (2023)
Sideview close-up of the letters with Alphabetic Akkadian letter assignments by Olmsted. These are definitely not Latin which anyone can see. These letters are similar to what is found in Iberia dating to 500 BCE.

Uncertain Translation of Phillack Stele of Cornwall, Britain

(September 2, 2023) These letters styles are similar to those found in Iberia. We need a better picture to make letter identification more certain!

Translation in Akkadian

(read left to right! Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels) Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. IRu  Ne'u  Tu  MiQi  UZu 
  2. (too uncertain to translate)

In English

  1. Astrological-powers are affecting astrological-magic undermining the frustration.
  2. (too uncertain to read)

Celtic Runestone In Alps From Vergiate, Italy (499 BCE Drought)

Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela from 499 BCE blames astrological powers for a drought

This text was written in response to the 499 BCE drought and blames the high energy of the astrological powers for the misery. This Celtic text is a mix of Aegean and Etruscan indicating the Alpine Celts adopted their writing from these two sources. Yet it has a slightly different mix than Mezzovico Stela (Celt Text 2) indicating that text styles had not yet stabilized in this culture. Photo from Lexicon Leponticum (Text VA-6) with letter assignments by Olmsted.

Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela 499 BCE
Drawing of Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela 499 BCE

Translation of Vergiate Runestone

This was found by chance in February 1913 less than a kilometer south-east of the little church San Gallo di Ronchi, at the road from Vergiate to Cimbro in Lombardia, Italy. The slab lay 80 cm below the surface together with Roman potsherds and tiles suggesting it had been reused by Romans for something. It was broken when found. Casts were made soon after the discovery and reflect a considerably better state of preservation than the original today.  It has a height 223 cm, breadth 70 cm, width 20 cm. Now at: Museo civico archeologico di Villa Mirabello (Varese).

(Jan 27, 2023) The Po river valley came under the control of a Celtic tribe known  by the Romans as the "Insubres" around 600 BCE.  They sacked Rome in 390 BCE. Yet they were conquered by Rome in the battle of Clastidium (modern Casteggio) in 222 BCE but gained a brief period of freedom when Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in the Second Punic War (218–201 bc). The Insubres were finally subdued by Rome in 196 BCE and gradually lost their identity in the rise of municipal communities. They were granted Latin rights in 89 BCE and full Roman citizenship 40 years later.

Translation in Akkadian (Celtic Text 3)

(read right to left. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. Gi  ILu  Ku  UYu  :  
  2. Gi  Du  UYu  AM  : 
  3. Šu  EWu  :
  4. Ku  A  Du.  IŠu  E  :
  5. Ya  A  Ya'u ....

In English

  1. Emotional-Energy (emotion magic) for high-powers is involved with the misery : 
  2. Emotional-Energy for life-manifestations is making miserable the Reed-Boat (Ayu ):
  3. Same for the shaper (Yahu) :
  4. Involve those life-manifestation-powers.  Confuse nothing. :
  5. Do not those Yahu-powers (life form manifestation powers) .... [letters too destroyed to translate]


Lexicon Leponticum. Online at: https://lexlep.univie.ac.at/wiki/VA%C2%B76_Vergiate

Original runestone was sandstone, measuring 1.34 X 0.65 X 0.15 meters This is a replica of the stele of Bensafrim, Lagos, Portugal; 135x75 cm. Museum of Southwest Writing, Almodôvar. The original is in the Museum of Figueira da Foz. Photo by Angel M. Felicisimo at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/elgolem/51988832229/in/album-72157715068387073/

Celtic Runestone From Bensafrim - Portugal 499 BCE

(August 29, 2023) The original stele was discovered in 1882 in the town courtyard centered around the Old Fountain of Bensafrim, Portugal by archaeologists Estácio da Veiga and Santos Rocha. Bensafrim is a former civil parish in the city of Lagos on the southern coast of Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Bensafrim e Barão de São João.

Its find was published by J. Leite de Vasconcellos in "The Portuguese Archaeologist III, 7. 1893."



Photo of original stele as published by J. Leite de Vasconcellos in 1893.

(August 29, 2023) Celtic Runestone from Bensafrim, Portugal

Translation of Outer Text in Akkadian (Med Text 37.1)

(read left to right. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Vowels are italic bold) 
  1. Lu  TeṬu  Tu  ḪiTu  Nu  Mu.  MuRu  AḪu  TuKu  Tu.  APu  AMu.  ANu  Gu  ALu.  E'u  LeTu  ZiTu.  
  2. Nu  A  Ne'u.  Nu  A  Pa'u.  Gu  A  Qu.  MaNu  MaMu.  Nu  Zu  Tu  ITu  Ḫu.  
  3. Tu  MaMu  E'u.  Ru  TaṢu  A  Re'u.  A'u  E  AŠu  MaMu.  Tu  TeNu  MaMu.   (The ayin /'/ is an /A/ when it begins a sentence)
(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English

  1. Lack of earth-water is due to astrology-magic joining the Revealer (Yahu) to the fertility-fluids. Rainstorms are attended by discipline for astrology-magic.  Veil the Reed-Boat (Ayu).  Considerations (focused emotions) can energize Alu.  Yahu (E') is being split-off from proper-allocations. 
  2. Reveal those affections (with emotion magic).  Reveal those network-bird-powers. Energize those life-thread-powers.  Support the waters.  Reveal the emanations with astrology-magic which foreshadow Hu.
  3. Astrology-magic can water Yahu (E').  Eagle-vultures can fool these shepherding-powers. Motion-powers are not doing the spewing-forth of the waters. Astrology-magic can replace the waters.

European Bardic Culture 1200-1350 CE

(July 2, 2023) Much of Western culture was created by court bards of late medieval times. These bards were looking for good stories with compelling, often magical, characters not unlike Hollywood today. They used complex language forms and often had deeper meanings buried within superficially epic romance and adventure stories. Part of these deeper meanings was the used of Akkadian phrases for the names of their characters. These would be like using Latin derived phrases for names today. Druid Akkadian by then was a dead language used mainly by Druid priests surviving in the north to write their religious rune texts. (Just like Latin continued to be used by the Catholic church into the 1960's)

Some of these names seem to have been epithets for ancient Druid deities and concepts given the "Hollywood" treatment while others like dwarf names seem to have been invented by the bards.

The most popular stories were commissioned by wealthy nobles to be written down on vellum in the local native language. This makes these stories something special because prior to this time, most writing in Europe was by and for trade and temple (Christian and Druid). More general writing for the public only began after the European economic reordering after the Black Death of 1350. This increasing demand from a more literate, free and prosperous urban population eventually led to the invention of the printing press and cheap paper in 1450.

 Bards had great respect among the Welsh but were generally held in contempt by the Scots who considered them itinerant troublemakers. Ironically, they were subsequently idealized by the early Scottish novelist and poet Sir Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) as being the first modern poets and singer. Scott is best known for his novel Ivanhoe (1820). Poetic use of the word in English is from Greek bardos, Latin bardus, both from Gaulish.  https://www.etymonline.com/word/bard

When the standard etymology of a word is not very good one needs to look for an Akkadian source. Such is the case for the word "Bard." It probably derives from the Akkadian phrase BaRu.Du meaning Seer.life or "Seer of life."

A lecture by Ronald Hutton who is an expert on British Pagan history. It was recorded on 26 April 2023 at Gresham College, London.

Welsh Language And Bardic Court Tales

(June 29, 2023) Linguistic scholar's of the past divided Europe into 3 parts based upon language:

  1. Norse/Germanic
  2. Celtic
  3. Slavonic

Today we know that these language differences arose from each having different mixing ratios of Indo-European with native Neolithic farmer Akkadian. Additionally, the Celtic languages are further divided into Goidelic or Gaelic (Irish, Manx and Scottish) and Brythonic (Welsh, Cornish and Breton). The Brythonic have a bit more Latin influences than Gaelic. English resulted mostly from later Germanic/Norse (Frisian, Anglo-Saxon) being mixed with Norman (Norse, French). Welsh stabilized as a language only after the Romans left Britain.

Some Welsh Spirit Power Names Derived From Druid Akkadian Phrases

-n is an Akkadian noun suffix indicating that the a person's divine powers are meant instead of the persona.

Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Guest (May 19, 1812 – January 15,  1895), later Lady Charlotte Schreiber, was an English linguist who is best known as the first publisher in modern print format of the Mabinogion, the earliest prose literature of Britain. 
She was the wife of Welsh ironmaster John Josiah Guest and  became a leading figure in the study of literature and the wider Welsh Renaissance of the 19th century. With her second husband, Charles Schreiber, she became a well known Victorian collector of porcelain; their collection is held in the Victoria and Albert Museum. She also created major collections of fans, games, and playing cards, which she gave to the British Museum. She was noted as an international industrialist, pioneering liberal educator, philanthropist and elite society hostess. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Charlotte_Guest)
Photo is an enhanced version of one found at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Lady_Charlotte_Guest_(4674585).jpg
Scan of the page from the Red Book of Hergest showing the word "Mabinogi"  in red at the top. This word was adopted as the name of the whole collection. This vellum manuscript is dated to between 1382 and 1410. Still at Jesus College at Oxford.
Photo online at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jesus-College-MS-111_00349_175r_(cropped).jpg

The Welsh Source Texts (Mabinogion) Translated by Lady Charlotte Guest

(June 30, 2023)  Charlotte Guest writes this about the early European texts deriving from royal courts:

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries there arose into general notoriety in Europe, a body of “Romance,” which in various forms retained its popularity till the Reformation. In it the plot, the incidents, the characters, were almost wholly those of Chivalry, that bond which united the warriors of France, Spain, and Italy, with those of pure Teutonic descent, and embraced more or less firmly all the nations of Europe, excepting only the Slavonic races, not yet risen to power, and the Celts, who had fallen from it. ...
These romances were found in England, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and even Iceland, as early as the beginning of the thirteenth and end of the twelfth century. The Germans, who propagated them through the nations of the North, derived them certainly from France. Robert Wace published his Anglo-Norman Romance of the Brut d’Angleterre about 1155. Sir Tristan was written in French prose in 1170; and The Chevalier au Lion, Chevalier de l’Epée, and Sir Lancelot du Lac, in metrical French, by Chrestien de Troyes, before 1200.
From these facts it is to be argued that the further back these romances are traced, the more clearly does it appear that they spread over the Continent from the North-west of France. The older versions, it may be remarked, are far more simple than the later corruptions. In them there is less allusion to the habits and usages of Chivalry, and the Welsh names and elements stand out in stronger relief....
 That Wales possessed an ancient literature, containing various lyric compositions, and certain triads, in which are arranged historical facts or moral aphorisms, has been shown by Sharon Turner, who has established the high antiquity of many of these compositions.
The more strictly Romantic Literature of Wales has been less fortunate, though not less deserving of critical attention. Small portions only of it have hitherto appeared in print, the remainder being still hidden in the obscurity of ancient Manuscripts: of these the chief is supposed to be the Red Book of Hergest, now in the Library of Jesus College, Oxford, and of the fourteenth century. This contains, besides poems, the prose romances known as Mabinogion. The Black Book of Caermarthen, preserved at Hengwrt, and considered not to be of later date than the twelfth century, is said to contain poems only....
There is one argument in favour of the high antiquity in Wales of many of the Mabinogion, which deserves to be mentioned here. This argument is founded on the topography of the country. It is found that Saxon names of places are very frequently definitions of the nature of the locality to which they are attached, as Clifton, Deepden, Bridge-ford, Thorpe, Ham, Wick, and the like; whereas those of Wales are more frequently commemorative of some event, real or supposed, said to have happened on or near the spot, or bearing allusion to some person renowned in the story of the country or district. Such are “Llyn y Morwynion,” the Lake of the Maidens; “Rhyd y Bedd,” the Ford of the Grave; “Bryn Cyfergyr,” the Hill of Assault; and so on. But as these names could not have preceded the events to which they refer, the events themselves must be not unfrequently as old as the early settlement in the country. And as some of these events and fictions are the subjects of, and are explained by, existing Welsh legends, it follows that the legends must be, in some shape or other, of very remote antiquity. It will be observed that this argument supports remote antiquity only for such legends as are connected with the greater topographical features, as mountains, lakes, rivers, seas, which must have been named at an early period in the inhabitation of the country by man. 

The Mabinogion is the title Charlotte Guest gave to her book in which she collected and translated these middle Welsh romance tales. This book was published in 1848.

Story Contents

  1. The Lady of the Fountain
  2. Peredur the Son of Evrawc
  3. Geraint the son of Erbin
  4. Kilhwch and Olwen
  5. The dream of Rhonabwy
  6. Pwyll Prince of Dyved
  7. Branwen the daughter of Llyr
  8. Manawyddan the son of Llyr
  9. Math the son of Mathonwy
  10. The dream of Maxen Wledig
  11. The story of Lludd and Llevelys
  12. Taliesin