Old Norse Dwarves (~700 CE)
3. Of old was the age | when Ymir lived;Sea nor cool waves | nor sand there were;Earth had not been, | nor heaven (sky-shell) above,But a yawning gap, | and grass nowhere.
4. Then Bur's sons lifted | the level land,Mithgarth the mighty | there they made;The sun from the south | warmed the stones of earth,And green was the ground | with growing leeks.
5. The sun, the sister | of the moon, from the southHer right hand cast | over heaven's rim;No knowledge she had | where her home should be,The moon knew not | what might was his,The stars knew not | where their stations were.
6. Then sought the gods | their assembly-seats,The holy ones, | and council held;Names then gave they | to noon and twilight,Morning they named, | and the waning moon,Night and evening, | the years to number.
7. At Ithavoll met | the mighty gods,Shrines and temples | they timbered high;Forges they set, and | they smithied ore,Tongs they wrought, | and tools they fashioned.
8. In their dwellings at peace | they played at tables,Of gold no lack | did the gods then know,--Till thither came | up giant-maids (should be "diviners") three,Huge of might, | out of Jotunheim.
9. Then sought the gods | their assembly-seats,The holy ones, | and council held,To find who should raise | the race of dwarfsOut of Brimir's blood | and the legs of Blain.
10. There was Motsognir | the mightiest madeOf all the dwarfs, | and Durin next;Many a likeness | of men they made,The dwarfs in the earth, | as Durin said.
11. Nyi and Nithi, | Northri and Suthri,Austri and Vestri, | Althjof, Dvalin,Nar and Nain, | Niping, Dain,Bifur, Bofur, | Bombur, Nori,An and Onar, | Óin, Mjothvitnir.
12. Vigg and Gandalf | Vindalf, Thorin,Thror and Thrain | Thekk, Lit and Vit,Nyr and Nyrath,-- | now have I told--Regin and Rathsvith-- | the list aright.
13. Fili, Kili, | Fundin, Nali,Hepti, Vili, | Hannar, Sviur,Billing, Bruni, | Bildr and Buri,Frar, Hornbori, | Fræg and Loni,Aurvang, Jari, | Eikinskjaldi.
14. The race of the dwarfs | in Dvalin's throngDown to Lofar | the list must I tell;The rocks they left, | and through wet landsThey sought a home | in the fields of sand.
15. There were Draupnir | and Dolgthrasir,Hor, Haugspori, | Hlevang, Gloin,Dori, Ori, | Duf, Andvari,Skirfir, Virfir, | Skafith, Ai.
16. Alf and Yngvi, | Eikinskjaldi (Oakenshield)Fjalar and Frosti, | Finn and Ginnar;So for all time | shall the tale be known,The list of all | the forbears of Lofar.
17. Then from the throng | did three come forth,From the home of the gods, | the mighty and gracious;Two without fate | on the land they found,Ask and Embla, | empty of might.
18. Soul they had not, | sense they had not,Heat nor motion, | nor goodly hue;Soul gave Othin, | sense gave Hönir,Heat gave Lothur | and goodly hue.
19. An ash I know, | Yggdrasil its name,With water white | is the great tree wet;Thence come the dews | that fall in the dales,Green by Urth's well | does it ever grow.
20. Thence come the maidens | mighty in wisdom,Three from the dwelling | down 'neath the tree;Urth is one named, | Verthandi the next,--On the wood they scored,-- | and Skuld the third.Laws they made there, and life allottedTo the sons of men, and set their fates.........
10. Þar var Móðsognir mæztr of orðinndverga allra, en Durinn annarr;þeir mannlíkun mörg of gerðudvergar í jörðu, sem Durinn sagði.
11. Nýi, Niði, Norðri, Suðri,Austri, Vestri, Alþjófr, Dvalinn,Nár ok Náinn Nípingr, DáinnBívurr, Bávurr, Bömburr, Nóri,Ánn ok Ánarr, Óinn, Mjöðvitnir.
12. Veggr ok Gandalfr, Vindalfr, Þorinn,Þrár ok Þráinn, Þekkr, Litr ok Vitr,Nýr ok Nýráðr, nú hefi ek dverga,Reginn ok Ráðsviðr, rétt of talða.
13. Fíli, Kíli, Fundinn, Náli,Hefti, Víli, Hannar, Svíurr,Billingr, Brúni, Bíldr ok Buri,Frár, Hornbori, Frægr ok Lóni,Aurvangr, Jari, Eikinskjaldi.
14. Mál er dverga í Dvalins liðiljóna kindum til Lofars telja,þeir er sóttu frá salar steiniAurvanga sjöt til Jöruvalla.
15. Þar var Draupnir ok Dolgþrasir,Hár, Haugspori, Hlévangr, Glóinn,Dóri, Óri Dúfr, AndvariSkirfir, Virfir, Skáfiðr, Ái.
16. Alfr ok Yngvi, Eikinskjaldi,Fjalarr ok Frosti, Finnr ok Ginnarr;þat mun æ uppi meðan öld lifir,langniðja tal Lofars hafat.
- Full translation of the Voluspa by Bellows online at Sacred Texts: https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe03.htm
- Original online at: https://tolkiengateway.net/wiki/V%C3%B6lusp%C3%A1
J.R. Tolkien's Dwarf Names Came from the Old Norse Voluspa Creation Story and Derive from Akkadian
(Feb 3, 2022) Dwarves represent various classes of spiritual powers which in true Pagan fashion may be optionally personified. They represent both classes of divne powers because they are made from Brimir (emotion/motion powers) and Blain (life powers). These similar to the heroes and demons of the Mediterranean culture like Heraklez and the cyclops.
Akkadian would have been perceived as ancient and exotic language to the Old Norse/Germanic people of 1000 CE just like Latin seems to us today. They were familiar with it but no longer used it. J.R. Tolkien who wrote "Lord of the Rings" realized these names represented some sort of even more ancient civilization than Old Norse/Germanic so he adopted them for his ancient dwarven civilization. These names are found in the Nordic creation story called the Vǫluspá (also Völuspá, Vǫlospá or Vǫluspǫ́). It means "Speach of the Imagineer" from Akkadian Volu or Walu and Indo-European Spa. Volu (WL) means "imagineer" who who creates new concepts and invisible imaginary images to later be manifested physically. Spa means "speaker or speech."
The Völuspá is found in the Icelandic Codex Regius manuscript (ca. 1270), and in Haukr Erlendsson's Hauksbók Codex (ca. 1334). Many of its stanzas are quoted or paraphrased in the Prose Edda (composed ca. 1220, oldest extant manuscript dates from ca. 1300). The order and number of the stanzas varies in these sources. Some editors and translators have further rearranged the material. The Codex Regius version is usually taken as a base for editions. Still these multiple attestations indicate this poem goes back further than 1200 BCE. It is one of the most important primary sources for Norse mythology.
The Voluspa is a 1200 CE Christian influenced creation story based on earlier Pagan (Druid and Indo-European) traditions. Its Christianization is evidenced by its apocalyptic theme.
Akkadian Dwarf Name Meanings
This list is balanced between motion/emotion powers and life powers.
The letter /o/ is the Akkadian glottal stop sign called ayin ('). It is replaced in Indo-European languages with either /a/ or /o/. An /ir/ suffix can be Old Norse indicator of a sentence's actor just like the English /er/.
- Ymir (Imir): Akkadian IM.R meaning "Emotion's eagle-vultures." Eagle-vultures were the editors of the life network who cut its links to properly shape it. Normally they are under the control of the goddess Ayu but emotion magic and the astrological powers can also affect them because those are the powers of motion.
- Bur: Akkadian BR meaning "Seers"
- Jotun (Yotun): Akkadian ITN (Yattun) meaning "forshadowing ones." These are the omen bringers from the astrological powers. Often mistranslated as "giants." Jotunheim = "Jotun's realm" with "heim" being Indo-European.
- Brimir: Akkadian B.RM meaning "Nourishments for emotional-release" Suffix /ir/ is Old Norse. (Motion power)
- Blain: Akkadian B.LN meaning "Nourishments for images." Images are invisible "platonic" life forms into which amorphous matter flows to be manifested. Animal and human life requires a body form combined with an inner spark of emotions for movement. This is also seen in the book of Genesis in which Yahweh creates man in his image. (Life power)
- Motsognir: Akkadian MTSG.NR meaning "Violence cullers" from "murdering.trouble.culler." This spirit being is essentially a police officer who brings order and stability to the divine realm. (Motion power)
- Durinn: Akkadian DR.NN meaning "Form anarchists." A "form" represents the shape of particular image which need to be revealed (manifested) on earth to become physical. A chaotic, misshapen form cannot be manifested until it is first stabilized by Motsognir. (Life power)
- Nyi: Akkadian N.Y meaning "Anti-Revealers" (Life power)
- Nithi: Akkadian N.Ṭ meaning "Revelations of Thu." Thu is the hermaphrodite connective motion power deity. (Life power)
- Northri: Akkadian NR.Ṭr meaning "Cullers of impressions." Impressions are an epithet for conscious feelings which in turn is the source of emotion magic. (motion/emotion power)
- Suthri: Akkadian S.ṬR meaning "Su's impressions." Su is the full moon masculine source power for motion/emotion powers.
- Austri: Akkadian AS.TR meaning "Cold-Healers of shapes." Here shapes are physical shapes, already manifested images.
- Vestri: Akkadian US.TR meaning "Chippers of shapes." (literally gooser of shapes)
- Althjof: Akkadian Al.Ṭ.IW meaning "Images from of Thu's redirection" (Motion power)
- Dvalin: Akkadian D.UL.N meaning "Manifestations of revealed Images" (Life power)
- Nar: Akkadian N.R meaning "Revelations of eagle-vultures." Life power network editor who often goes astray by causing death (Life power)
- Nair: Akkadian N.IR meaning "Revelations of astrological-powers" Motion power which often goes astray and calls out death (Motion power)
- Niping: Akkadian N.P.NG meaning "Revelations of openings in the coast." The coast is the rain producing sky-shell which brings the rains via openings. (Life power)
- Dainn: Akkadian D.IN.N meaning "Manifestations of moon-eyed revelation" (Motion power)
- Bifur: Akkadian B.IW.R meaning "Nourishments for eagle-vulture redirection" (Life power affecting network editing)
- Bofur: Akkadian B.AW.R meaning "Nourishments for eagle-vulture activity" (motion power affecting network editing)
- Bombur: Akkadian BM.BR meaning "Dividers of seers (Motion/Emotion powers)
- Nori: Akkadian N.R meaning "Revelations of eagle-vultures" (Life powers)
- Ann: Akkadian AN.N meaning "Considerations for revelations." Considerations are focused emotions and thus the core of emotion magic. (Motion power divination)
- Onar: Akkadian AN.R meaning "Considerations for eagle-vultures." (Motion power for life-network editing)
- Oinn: Akkadian IN.N meaning "Moon- eye revelations" (Motion power)
- Mjothvitnir: Akkadian M.Iṭṭ.U.It.N meaning "Fertility-fluid's Tar and Omen Revealer" (Life power)
- Vigg: Akkadian UG.G meaning "Death energizer." The word "fate'-eye" can also be translated as evil eye after lordification. It is an epithet for the full moon motion source god Su. (Motion power)
- Gandalfr: Akkadian G.ND.AL.UR meaning "Energizer of the shedded images of Dawn." Dawn and dusk was the time when motion powers and life powers met. This was the time when most rituals were done, especially those involving pushing the fertility fluids through the life network so they could trigger life manifestations on earth. The word Alfr (AL.UR) stands alone indicating is starts with an "A." It is translated as elf. Consequently, elves represent the life image powers of the dawn.
- Vindalfr: Akkadian W.ND.AL.UR meaning "Crimper of shedded images of Dawn" (Life power). These shedded images must be something like wandering dead spirits.
- Þorinn: Akkadian P.AR.IN.N meaning "Openings controlled by revealed moon-eyes" (Motion power)
- Pror: Akkadian PR.R meaning "Efforts of eagle-vultures." (Life power)
- Prainn: Akkadian PR.IN.N meaning "Efforts of revealed moon-eyes" (Motion power)
- Pekkr: Akkadian P.KK.R meaning "Opener of weapons for eagle-vultures" (Life power)
- Litr: Akkadian LT.R meaning "Splitter of Eagle-vultures." (Life power)
- Vitr: Akkadian UT.R meaning "Weaver of Eagle-vultures." (Life power)
- Nyr: Akkadian N.IR meaning "Revelations of astrological-powers" (Motion power)
- Nyrathr: Akkadian N.IR.ṬR meaning "Revelations of the astrological-power's for impressions." This would be dream interpretation. (Motion power)
- Reginn: Akkadian R.GN.N meaning "Eagle-vulture consistency revelations." (Life power)
- Rathsvithr: Akkadian RṬ.S.U.ṬR meaning "Channel of Su and Impressions. (Motion power)
- Fili: Akkadian WL meaning "Imagineer." (Life power)
- Kili: Akkadian KL meaning "Restrainer." (Motion power)
- Fundinn: Akkadian W.ND.NN meaning "Crimper of shedded anarchy" (Motion power)
- Nali: Akkadian NL meaning "Dispersing-One" (Life power)
- Hepti: Akkadian ḪP.T meaning "Purifier of magic" (Motion power)
- Vili: Akkadian W.L meaning "Crimper of lack." (Life power)
- Hannar: Akkadian ḪN.N.R meaning "Intimidations by revelations from eagle-vultures." (Life power)
- Sviurr: Akkadian S.UY.UR.R meaning "Su's misery for dawn's eagle-vultures." (Su is motion power source).
- Billingr: Akkadian B.L.LN.GR meaning "Nourishment for lack image assaults" (Assault is a motion power)
- Bruni: Akkadian B.R.N meaning "Nourishments for the eagle-vulture's revelations" (Life power)
- Bildr: Akkadian B.LD.R meaning "Nourishments for the field's eagle-vultures" (Life powers with fields being an epithet for the life network)
- Buri: Akkadian B.R meaning "Nourishments for the eagle-vultures" (Life powers)
- Frar: Akkadian UR.R meaning "Dawn's eagle-vultures" (Life powers)
- Hornbori: Akkadian ḪR.N.BR meaning "Liver's revelation Seers" (Motion powers)
- Frægr: Akkadian UR.AG.R meaning "The angry dawn of eagle-vultures" (Motion/Emotion powers)
- Loni: Akkadian L.N meaning "The lack of revelations" (Life powers)
- Aurvangr: Akkadian AR.W.NG.R meaning "The crimping control of the coast's eagle-vultures" (Effective life powers)
- Jari: Akkadian Y.R meaning "The ineffectiveness of eagle-vultures" (Ineffective life powers)
- Eikinskjaldi: Akkadian EK.NS.K.Y.LD meaning "Distant starvation not due to the fields." (Fields is an epithet for the life network. This statement is referring to a source of starvation more distant, that is, with the source powers themselves.)
- Dvalins: Akkadian D.WL.NS meaning " Manifestations of distant images" (Effective life powers)
- Lofars: Akkadian L.W.RS meaning " Lack of crimping from attacks" (Ineffective life powers)
- Draupnir: Akkadian DR.WP.NR meaning "Forms of culled appearances." This would seem to be a reference to ghosts. (Life powers)
- Dolgthrasir: Akkadian DL.G.ṬR.SR meaning "Water-bringer energizing treacherous impressions" Impressions are conscious feelings. (Motion power)
- Hor: Akkadian ḪR meaning "Livering (Haruspicy)." The liver was the link between divine motion powers and human breath/spirit/emotions. (Motion power)
- Haugspori: Akkadian HW.GS.PR meaning "Howling energizing Su's efforts" (Motion power)
- Hlevangr: Akkadian ḪL.W.N.GR meaning "Hot-Healing the crimping for assaulted revelations" (Effective motion powers)
- Gloinn: Akkadian GL.IN.N meaning "Detachments of moon-eye's revelations" (Ineffective motion powers)
- Dori: Akkadian DR meaning "Formers." (Life power)
- Ori: Akkadian AR meaning "Controllers." Controllers are the connective powers for both life and motion power classes.)
- Dufr: Akkadian D.UR meaning "Manifestations of the Dawn" (Life power)
- Andvari: Akkadian AN.D.UR meaning "Considerations for manifestation of the Dawn. (Motion power)
- Skirfir: Akkadian S.KR. R meaning "Su's reduction of the Dawn"
- Virfir: Akkadian WR.UR meaning "Crimper of eagle-vultures of the Dawn" (Frar)
- Skafithr: Akkadian S.K.W.ṬR meaning " Su's involvment with the crimping of impressions
- Ai: Akkadian AY meaning the crescent moon goddess "Ayu."
- Alfr: Akkadian AL.UR meaning "Imagineer of the Dawn"
- Yngvi: Akkadian IN.G.W meaning "Moon-eye's energy of crimping"
- Eikinskjaldi: Akkadian IK.NS.K.Y.LD meaning "Irrigating distant-ones not involving the fields (life network)"
- Fjalarr: Akkadian UY.LR.R meaning "Misery's diversion of eagle-vultures"
- Frosti: Akkadian UR.ST meaning "Dawn's portions"
- Finnr: Akkadian W.N.NR meaning "Crimper of the revelation's culling"
- Ginnarr: GN.NR.R meaning "Constant in culling eagle-vultures"
- Lofars: Akkadian L.W.RS meaning " Lack of crimpers from attacks" (Ineffective life powers) see 14.2
Yggdrasill: Akkadian IG.G.DR.SL.L meaning "Fate energy formation without Selu (Selene)." Yggdrasill was the ash tree holding together the universe. Its Akkadian meaning shows it defined the fate of the universe with a magical motion energy not associated with the glowing sparks of life from the life source goddess Selu who is known from Greek sources as Selene.
Akkadian Meanings of Germanic/Nordic Deities
Original Æsir (Life Power) Deities
- Æsir: Akkadian ASR meaning "Encloser" or "Enclosed Ones." Encloser is an epithet for the life manifestation goddess Ashur. This class represents the life powers associated with the womb (the enclosed region). In Druid texts over their whole history the life powers are often in conflict with the magical motion/emotion powers represented in Nordic culture by the Jotun.
Original Æsir gods are:
- Odin: Akkadian AD.N meaning "Observer of revelations"
- Baldr: Akkadian BL.DR meaning "Constrainer of forms"
- Heim.dallr: realm of DL.LR meaning realm of "Water-bringer diverters"
- Váli: Akkadian W.L meaning "Crimper of lack." (Life power). This is also a dwarf
- Ullr: Akkadian UL.LR meaning "Imagineer's diversions" Imagineer is the life power source god who creates the invisible images.
- Forseti: Akkadian UR.ST meaning "Dawn's portions"
Motion Power Gods Later Assigned to the Æsir Before the Battle with the Motion Powers.
- Thorr: Akkadian ṬR.R meaning "Impression's eagle-vulture." Impressions are conscious impressions representing magical emotion/motion powers while eagle-vultures edit the life network, that is, cull the threads to cause death.
- Víðarr: Akkadian W.ṬR.R meaning "Crimper of impression's eagle-vultures" (Thor's opponent)
- Höðr: Akkadian ḪṬ.R meaning "Alarm's eagle-vultures"
- Týr: Akkadian T.IR meaning "Magic's astrological-powers"
- Bragi: Akkadian BR.G meaning " Seer's energizer"
Eagle-vultures are normally associated with the life powers because they edit the life network. But they can also be assigned to edit other things but their cross function is why their class assignments could be confused.
Vanir Class (Emotion/Motion Powers)
- Vanir: Akkadian W.NR meaning "crimpers of cullings." or "restrictors of the cullings." The Eddic poems only explicitly mention Njörðr, Freyr and Freyja as being of the Vanir. After a war between the Vanir and Aesir they became Aesir
- Njörðr: Akkadian N.IR.ṬR meaning "Revealer of the astrological-power's impressions
- Skaði: (Meaning "Impulsive one." Skadi has a unique linguistic history and so is not actually listed as Vanir because her name in this culture cannot be directly translated from Akkadian because of the sound change of the letter ð from /d/ to /th/ when used inside words (it became /d/ again in English. Yet this word is found on Etruscan pottery. Skadi as a wife of Njörðr and mother of Freyr and Freyja must be Vanir)
- Freyr: Akkadian UR.IR meaning "Dawn's astrological-powers" (male)
- Freyja: Akkadian UR.YY meaning "Dawn's pain" (female)
The pain in "Dawn's pain" is an emotion and opponent to Dawn which integrates magical motion powers with the life powers.
The Nordic Prose Edda (section 23) says this about Njörðr (Nyorthr or Njordr):
XXIII. "The third among the Æsir is he that is called Njördr: he dwells in heaven, in the abode called Nóatún. He rules the course of the wind, and stills sea and fire; on him shall men call for voyages and for hunting. He is so prosperous and abounding in wealth, that he may give them great plenty of lands or of gear; and him shall men invoke for such things. Njördr is not of the race of the Æsir: he was reared in the land of the Vanir, but the Vanir delivered him as hostage to the gods, and took for hostage in exchange him that men call HÅnir; he became an atonement between the gods and the Vanir. Njördr has to wife the woman called Skadi, daughter of Thjazi the giant.
Online at: https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/pre/pre04.htm
Skadi (Compare this Skadi with the Etruscan version)
Skadi would fain dwell in the abode which her father had had, which is on certain mountains, in the place called Thrymheimr; but Njördr would be near the sea. They made a compact on these terms: they should be nine nights in Thrymheimr, but the second nine at Nóatún. But when Njördr came down from the mountain back to Nóatún, he sang this lay:
Loath were the hills to me, | I was not long in them, Nights only nine;To me the wailing of | wolves seemed ill, After the song of swans.
Then Skadi sang this:
Sleep could I never | on the sea-beds, For the wailing of waterfowl;He wakens me, | who comes from the deep-- The sea-mew every morn.
Then Skadi went up onto the mountain, and dwelt in Thrymheimr. And she goes for the more part on snowshoes and with a bow and arrow, and shoots beasts; she is called Snowshoe-Goddess or Lady of the Snowshoes. So it is said:
Thrymheimr't is called, | where Thjazi dwelt, He the hideous giant;But now Skadi abides, | pure bride of the gods, In her father's ancient freehold.
Online at: https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/pre/pre04.htm
- Thrymheimr: Akkadian ṬR.IM. meaning "Impressions of emotions" so the whole word means "realm of emotional feelings." These were the source of motion magic.
Freyr, and Freyja - Children of Njördr and Skadi
XXIV. "Njördr in Nóatún begot afterward two children: the son was called Freyr, and the daughter Freyja; they were fair of face and mighty. Freyr is the most renowned of the Æsir; he rules over the rain and the shining of the sun, and therewithal the fruit of the earth; and it is good to call on him for fruitful seasons and peace. He governs also the prosperity of men. But Freyja is the most renowned of the goddesses; she has in heaven the dwelling called Fólkvangr, and wheresoever she rides to the strife, she has one-half of the kill, and Odin half, as is here said:
Fólkvangr 't is called, | where Freyja rules Degrees of seats in the hall;Half the kill | she keepeth each day, And half Odin hath.
Her hall Sessrúmnir is great and fair. When she goes forth, she drives her cats and sits in a chariot; she is most conformable to man's prayers, and from her name comes the name of honor, Frú, by which noblewomen are called. Songs of love are well-pleasing to her; it is good to call on her for furtherance in love."
Online at: https://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/pre/pre04.htm