Norse/Germanic Deities From Druid Akkadian Phrases

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Viking Biological Ancestry

(July 9, 2023) Vikings (793–1066 CE) were a genetically diverse group coming from all over Europe. Culturally they were long term river and sea traders who took to raiding when the opportunity presented itself. This close connection with Europe indicates that they were a part of the broad Druid Civilization. Textual evidence indicates that the Nordic pantheon only developed after 900 CE out of the earlier Druid pantheon and under pressure from Christianity.

A page from Adam's famous book: "Deeds of Bishops of the Hamburg Church" which starts the description of the geography of Denmark (red initial P).
Adam of Bremen (born ~1050 to 1081/1085) was one of the foremost historians and early ethnographers of the medieval period. Adam is most famous for his chronicle Gesta Hammaburgensis ecclesiae pontificum (Deeds of Bishops of the Hamburg Church). In this he included a chapter mentioning the Norse outpost of Vinland, and was thus the first continental European to write about the New World.
Photo online at:

The 3 Main Druid/Norse Deities by 1000 CE Were Thor, Oden, Frigg

Adam of Bremen in Book 4 of his History of the Archbishops of Hamburg 1075-1080 CE Says This about the 3 Main Norse Deities of His Time

(July 8, 2023) While Adam of Bremen took every opportunity to disrespect Paganism by exaggerating animal and human sacrifices he still provides good information.

Chapter 26: Now we shall say a few words about the superstitions of the Swedes. That folk has a very famous temple [134] called Uppsala, situated not far from the city of Sigtuna and Björkö. In this temple, [135] entirely decked out in gold, the people worship the statues of three gods in such wise that the mightiest of them, Thor, occupies a throne in the middle of the chamber; Wotan (Odin) and Frikko (Frigg) have places on either side. The significance of these gods is as follows: Thor, they say, presides over the air, which governs the thunder and lightning, the winds and rains, fair weather and crops. The other, Wotan -that is, the Furious--carries on war and imparts to man strength against his enemies. The third is Frikko, who bestows peace and pleasure on mortals. His likeness, too, they fashion with an immense phallus. But Wotan they chisel armed, as our people are wont to represent Mars. Thor with his scepter apparently resembles Jove. [136] The people also worship heroes made gods, whom they endow with immortality because of their remarkable exploits, as one reads in the Vita of Saint Ansgar they did in the case of King Eric.
Chapter 27: For all their gods there are appointed priests to offer sacrifices for the people. If plague and famine threaten, a libation is poured to the idol Thor; if war, to Wotan; if marriages are to be celebrated, to Frikko. It is customary also to solemnize in Uppsala, at nine-year intervals, a general feast of all the provinces of Sweden. From attendance at this festival no one is exempted Kings and people all and singly send their gifts to Uppsala and, what is more distressing than any kind of punishment, those who have already adopted Christianity redeem themselves through these ceremonies. The sacrifice is of this nature: of every living thing that is male, they offer nine heads with the blood of which it is customary to placate gods of this sort. The bodies they hang in the sacred grove that adjoins the temple. Now this grove is so sacred in the eyes of the heathen that each and every tree in it is believed divine because of the death or putrefaction of the victims. Even dogs and horses hang there with men. A Christian told me that he had seen 72 bodies suspended promiscuously. Furthermore, the incantations customarily chanted in the ritual of a sacrifice of this kind are manifold and unseemly; therefore, it is better to keep silent about them. (Then Breme adds this: Feasts and sacrifices of this kind are solemnized for nine days. On each day they offer a man along with other living beings in such a number that in the course of the nine days they will have made offerings of seventy-two creatures. This sacrifice takes place about the time of the vernal equinox)
Online at:
This is one of the earliest Thor's hammers ever discovered and it only dates to between 950 to 1000 CE. It was found in Ysby in southwestern Sweden’s Halland province. The hammer was unearthed at the site of future housing construction. The amulet is 3 centimeters (1.18 inches) long and cast in lead in the stylized shape that represents Thor’s dwarf-crafted hammer Mjölnir. It has a hole in the shaft where a string or a tie of some sort was threaded through so it could be worn as a pendant. One side of the hammer’s head is engraved with an interlacing pattern.
Reported at the History Blog at:

The Trinity Powers Of Thor

(July 8, 2023) The god Thor and his hammer represent the powers of life and object shaping as  indicated by the Akkadian phrase making up his name. The phrase is Old Norse Þórr which comes from Akkadian DaRu meaning form with an Indo-European -R word ending. Together they mean "Former" or Form-Maker." 

His hammer is called  Mjöllnir which is Akkadian M.IL.N plus Indo-European -R. This means "Fertility-Fluids.High-Powers.Revealer" or the "Revealer of the high-power's fertility-fluids." As a revealing or manifestation power the hammer is responsible for manifesting object forms on earth, that is, by giving the object its final visible shape.  Consequently Thor and his hammer represent all 3 layers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm with Thor himself representing the upper two  layers of the sun/storm powers and the life source powers of Alu. Consequently, Thor is not an Aesir motion power god despite what some later Norse sources say. This mistake came about because of his storm and thunder correspondence made some people assume he was an air/motion power.

Only around 1000 CE did Thor become one of the most popular deities in the Norse pantheon at which time he replaced the older individual Druid ones. This replacement seems to have been driven by the Christian concept of the Trinity in which God was composed of the 3 Ancient Pagan Paradigm layer powers called the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit (Source, Connection, Manifestation). In this way Thor could be seen as equivalent to the Christian God and came to be called the "All-Father."

More on Thor here:

The Dark New Moon Motion Powers Called Aesir

(August 4, 2023) 

For more information on how the individual deities appear in the Eddas see:

Druid/Nordic Motion Power Deities: The Aesir (Air) Powers

Old Norse Njörðr: Akkadian N.IR.Ṭ with Indo-European -R ending means "Revealer.Astrological-power.Thu or in other words the "Revealer of the astrological-powers of Thu" where Thu is the hermaphrodite connective motion power deity who often represents the power of raw sexuality. Thu is the spouse of Skadi (whose gender is mixed in the archaeological and textual record). Astrological powers are the powers of fate. The Nordic Prose Edda (section 23) says this about Njörðr (Nyorthr or Njordr): XXIII. "The third among the Æsir is he that is called Njördr: he dwells in heaven, in the abode called Nóatún. He rules the course of the wind, and stills sea and fire; on him shall men call for voyages and for hunting. He is so prosperous and abounding in wealth, that he may give them great plenty of lands or of gear; and him shall men invoke for such things. Njördr is not of the race of the Æsir: he was reared in the land of the Vanir, but the Vanir delivered him as hostage to the gods, and took for hostage in exchange him that men call HÅnir; he became an atonement between the gods and the Vanir. Njördr has to wife the woman called Skadi, daughter of Thjazi the giant. 

Old Norse Frigg: Akkadian UR.IG.G meaning Birth.Selu-Eye.Energy or "Birth of bright moon energy." She is the birthing, revealing, and manifesting power of the motion power class while Su is the connective power. Near the end of Nordic Pagan culture they were conflating the connective and manifesting levels of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm. This conflation is also seen with the life powers represented by Thor. Selu (Selene = "powers of Selu") is the magical motion source goddess who represents celestial light of the moon. Frigg was a völva (astrology magic crafter) who practices a form of magic known as Seider (Old Norse seiðr). 

The Rest of the Aesir

The Norns: Urd, Verdandi, and Skuld under the World-tree Yggdrasil. Image by Ludwig Burger (1882)

The "Other Group" of Spiritual Powers - The Vanir Class  

(August 3, 2023)  As the "other" group this does not independently define a certain type of deity. Sometimes this word represents the life class deities (Freyr,  Freya) not a part of the motion deities defined as the Aesir. At other times it represents the other gods, usually evil, in some conflict.

The word "Vanir" seems to be a pure Indo-European word based upon the word "Van. " which derives from "caravan" as a traveling group of outsiders which in turn came  Old French carvane, carevane "(12o0's CE), or Medieval Latin caravana, both words picked up during the Crusades, via Arabic qairawan  or from Persian karwan "group of desert travelers."  

Consequently, "Van" mean' something like "That other group." The Vanir deities make their home in Vanaheim meaning "Realm of the Others."

Norse religion is heavily biased towards the motion powers to such a degree that the original life power deities are now merged powers between life and motion such as Freyr and Freya below.

The "Other Power" List

    1. Urd: Old Norse Urðr: Akkadian UR.ṬR meaning  Dawn.Writer or Birth.Witer. She wrote down a person's fate at birth.
    2. Verdandi: Old Norse Verðandi: Akkadian UR.ṬeN.D meaning Dawn.Grinding.Manifestation where "grinding" is an epithet for time including its random events.
    3. Skuld: Old Norse Skuld: Akkadian SK.LD meaning  Weave.Irrigated-field where "irrigated field" is an epithet for the life network. Cutting a person's thread in this network kills them.


Online at:

Norse Mythology for Smart People. Online at:

Close-up of Skathi on a Etruscan pot holding the axe yet. Notice he is male and in the context of harming others. Yet the name is spelled Skadi on the pot.

Full image. This Etruscan krater was found near Vulci, Italy in 1833. (Photo: French National Library Number: De Ridder.920)

More on Skadi and Njördr (Compare this Skadi with the Etruscan Pot version)

Skathi or Skadi seems to be an Indo-European word with a transitioning last consonant between a /d/ and a /th/. It means "to harm" as in the phrase: "he made a scathing remark." Yet it is also found on an Eturscan pot. It is found in these northern languages (from

  1. Icelandic: skaði
  2. Faroese: skaði
  3. Norwegian: skade
  4. Old Swedish: skaþi
  5. Swedish: skada, skade
  6. Old Danish: skathi
  7. Danish: skade
  8. Middle English: scathe, skathe
  9. Scots: scath, scaith, skaith, schath, schaith
  10. English: scath, scathe

Skadi would fain dwell in the abode which her father had had, which is on certain mountains, in the place called Thrymheimr; but Njördr would be near the sea. They made a compact on these terms: they should be nine nights in Thrymheimr, but the second nine at Nóatún. But when Njördr came down from the mountain back to Nóatún, he sang this lay:
Loath were the hills to me, | I was not long in them,    Nights only nine;To me the wailing of | wolves seemed ill,    After the song of swans.
Then Skadi sang this:
Sleep could I never | on the sea-beds,    For the wailing of waterfowl;He wakens me, | who comes from the deep--    The sea-mew every morn.
Then Skadi went up onto the mountain, and dwelt in Thrymheimr. And she goes for the more part on snowshoes and with a bow and arrow, and shoots beasts; she is called Snowshoe-Goddess or Lady of the Snowshoes. So it is said:
Thrymheimr't is called, | where Thjazi dwelt,    He the hideous giant;But now Skadi abides, | pure bride of the gods,    In her father's ancient freehold.


Online at:
Fresco showing Yggdrasill from the assembly hall of the University of Goteborg which was opened in 1907. It was painted by Nils Asplund (1874-1958). In it, the god Heimdall blesses man with the tools of culture and agriculture. Above his throne, engraved with Eddic verse, the ash Yggdrasill rises.  The scene is derived from the mythological works of Swedish poet and polymath Viktor Rydberg (1828-1895)

Norse Spiritual Concepts and Places

(August 4, 2023)

  1. Vanaheim: Realm of the Vanir (The other powers)
  2. Jotunheim: Realm of the Jotun (Akkadian IT.N = Omen.Revealers).
  3. Niflheim: Realm of the Niphl (Akkadian N.PḪ.L = "Revealer.Transformations. Lacking" or in other words "Revealers of Partial Transformations." Transformations are the process which change spiritual things into physical things like fertility-fluids into light and heat rays. This group represented imperfections in that process such as when water freezes up or dries up.
  4. Muspelheim: Realm of the night-rulers (Akkadian MS.PL = night.rulers"). These are the powers of the astrological night sky.
  5. Alfheim: Realm of the elves (Elf = Akkadian AL.F + AL.PḪ = "Alu's.Transformations.") In other words Elf's are magical life source transformers who can shape and heal life.
  6. Svartalfheim: Realm of the dwarves (Akkadian S.UR.TL.PḪ = "Su.Birth.Mound.Transformation.") In other words dwarves are transformers of the motion powers involved in giving motion to new life or to the newly dead.


Price, Neil S. (2002) The Viking Way: Religion and War in Late Iron Age Scandinavia. p. 64.

The Hunninge Image Stone from Gotland, Sweden, with imagery that probably refers to Atlakviða, or another story or poem on the same events. The top of the stone shows a a man carrying a ring who may be Sigurd or the messenger Knéfrøðr. On the bottom left, the scene depicts a woman watching the snake pit where Gunnar is lying.

Image Stone in the Museum Fornsalen at Visby, Gotland, Sweden. Height approx. 4 meters. Picture by via Wikimedia Commons at:

Two Oldest Two Norse Poems Based Upon Archaic Linguistic Features (900 CE but in Poetic Edda)

Atlakviða (These weak-willed Thu-powers being done by Thu)

Atli, king of the Huns, sends a messenger to Gunnarr, king of the Burgundians, and his younger brother Högni. The messenger says that Atli is inviting the brothers to his court and offering them great riches. The brothers are skeptical of the offer since they already have an exceedingly great treasure of gold. Confirming their suspicions is a ring sent by their sister Guðrún, Atli's wife, with a wolf's hair wrapped onto it. Atli obviously plans treachery but Gunnarr still decides to take up the offer, vowing that if he doesn't return no-one will benefit from his riches.

As Gunnarr and Högni arrive at Atli's court they meet Guðrún who tells them that they should not have come. Gunnarr is seized by Atli's men while Högni fights and kills eight men before he is subdued. The Huns ask Gunnarr if he wants to ransom his life by telling them where he has hidden his gold. He tells them that he wants to see Högni's heart. They first cut out the heart of a cowardly man named Hjalli and bring it to Gunnarr but he sees from the cowardly trembling of the heart who its owner was. Then they cut out Högni's heart and he dies laughing. Gunnarr recognizes the heart of his brave brother but tells the Huns that now that he alone knows the location of the gold he can be certain that it will never be disclosed. The Huns then throw him into a snake pit where he dies playing a harp.

Guðrún prepares a banquet for Atli and his court. When the feast is well underway she tells Atli that he is actually eating the flesh of their two sons. Guðrún later kills the unattentive Atli in his bed, sets loose the hounds and awakens the housecarls she has bribed. Guðrún throws a burning twig into the hall and eventually Atli's entire estate is set ablaze. All the people in the hall, Atli's temple, the "dwelling of the Buthlungs" as well as shield-maidens are consumed by the fire. 

Hamðismal (Hamðismal)

Gudrun had been the wife of the hero Sigurd, whom her brothers had killed. With Sigurd she had had the daughter Svanhild, who had married to the Goth king Ermanaric (Jörmunrekkr). Ermanaric had Svanhild trampled to death by horses, due to which Gudrun wants vengeance, and she agitates her sons (see Jonakr's sons) from a later marriage to kill Ermanaric, cf. Guðrúnarhvöt.

The poem is considered to belong to the oldest of the heroic poems, probably from the 9th century. It makes an archaic impression with its bitter and laconic language. Howling with wrath, the brothers Hamdir and Sörli ride over a misty mountain. The last lines are like carved on a runestone:

  1. Þar fell Sa/rli
  2. at salar gafli,
  3. enn Hamþir hne
  4. at hvsbaki.

  1. At the hall's gable-end
  2. Fell Sorli to earth,
  3. But Hamdir lay low
  4. At the back of the houses