Ancient Pagan Paradigm

Below is a chart summarizing the Three-Layered Ancient Pagan Paradigm as it once existed throughout the first farming cultures of Eurasia. This chart was constructed from information found in the oldest texts and from recent archaeological findings. These early texts are Sumerian texts (2300-2000 BCE), Alphabetic Akkadian Mediterranean texts (1800-500 BCE), and Egyptian Pyramid texts (2300-2100 BCE).

Ancient Pagan Paradigm June 2022

The Ancient Pagan Paradigm is divided into two power classes. The life-growth class generates the growth of living things while the motion class generates all translational motion. At the moment, the details the more magical motion class are somewhat uncertain because Neolithic farmers were more interested in the life-growth powers. Information on the motion class mostly comes from the trading-focused Minoans, Phoenicians, and Etruscans. The Indo-European invaders seem to have introduced the sky deities associated with Zeus which are actually specializations of the motion powers based upon the planets. In time both were corrupted by the later LRD (Lordified, Revealed, Dualist) paradigm.

This is an incredible mosaic from the Aigai palace of King Phillip II of Macedon (359-336 BCE, Alexander the Great's father) which artistically shows the three layers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm. In the center is the earth with atmosphere. Surrounding it is the life network shown as a vine with its Druidic deity spirals. Around that is the sky-shell with the source deities their spirals in the corners. Built by Philip II (c. 359-336 BCE)

Photo is enhanced version of

Three layered spirals/vortices from Minoan Crete

Three Layers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm Represented by Three Minoan Vortices (1800 BCE)

This lintel is on display at the Minoan Heraklion Museum in Crete. It shows the three vortex layers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm going through the sky shell. (Olmsted personal photo 2019)
2300 BCE Cuneiform sign KEŠ2 meaning "to bind."

Three Layered Sumerian Cuneiform Sign KEŠ2

The Mesopotamian Akkadians adopted cuneiform signs from their southern neighbors known as the Sumerians. This is their cuneiform sign KEŠ2 which means "to bind." It dates to 2300 BCE.
This sign has all three life layers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm. The cuneiform signs during this early era were still mostly pictographic so they can still be read symbolically.
The top sign is a star which is the sign for the sound AN which as a symbol represents the sky shell or the life source powers which when personified represents the god Anu. The second sign is a storage pot with a toga inside representing “woven fabric” or the “network.” By itself it is the sound GAD. The bottom sign by itself means "earth" and it is the sound KI. It consists of a pot containing a cluster of vertical lines divine powers. Pots represented confined spaces.
Knowth Ritual Macehead (Scepter) with spiral/vortex and network from Boyne Valley Ireland

Knowth Ritual Macehead (Scepter) from Boyne Valley Ireland Shows Paired and Single Spirals (Vortices)

Spirals or vortices represent a clustering of divine powers into a deity just like how a fluid vortex in a river cluster fluids into one spot.
This polished flint macehead was found on September 1, 1982 in the eastern tomb at Knowth in the Boyne river valley. It was found near the door to the right room under a large shale floor tile. The central main mound in which it was found was dated by carbon 14 to be about 2800 BCE. The smaller eastern mound is assumed to be of a slightly later date of around 3000 BCE.
The paired (also called horned) spirals represent the feminine and masculine paired deities of the life class of powers while the single represents the cross-gender motion class of powers.
Image from British Museum presentation by Alison Sheridan entitled "Exploring the Wider World of Stonehenge: Long Distance Connections and Movements" at 1:03:14.
Minoan Phaistos Disk outer ring with phonetic sign assignments
Image shows the Minoan Phaistos Disk with phonetic sign assignments by Olmsted. Sign assignment charts here.

Front Side (Side B) Outer First Ring of Minoan Phaistos Disk Blames Network Life Power Hu for the Drought (Future Phoenician Sub-Culture)

(August 10, 2022) Each number labels a square section of text representing a phrase. The texts starts from the outer ring and moves inwards. Akkadian texts love to use epithets for deities so their names have been placed in parentheses. This text essentially summarizes the Ancient Pagan Paradigm.

Translation into Akkadian

  1. rēṣu gi bu du
  2. gu madû šū
  3. rāṭu na li
  4. gerû gu
  5. zu pa’ȗ ṣi
  6. lāna iši
  7. ki Ḫu qu zu
  8. pu du ki ḥēya
  9. gi ṭu qeri
  10. du pa bu gu
  11. ru nawa bu
  12. gu rēya Ḫu

(Continue Reading)

Into English

  1. The upper-region’s energies (Su and Selene) are nourishing the life-powers.
  2. Energies are being manifested in the usual-way.
  3. The fluid-channels cause the lack of the Revealer (Yahu).
  4. Assaulting-powers are abundant
  5. Eliminate the divine-bird’s activity-power.
  6. The Imager (Asher, Asherah) is a confused-power
  7. due to Hu’s eliminated divine-threads.
  8. Life-empowered openings are due respect.
  9. The energy of Thu is an inquiring-power
  10. Life-powers are threading the Opener’s (Asher's) nourishments.
  11. Eagle-vultures are abandoning the nourishments.
  12. The energies are shepherding Hu.


Olmsted, D.D. (September 17, 2021) Translation of the Minoan Phaistos Disk in Alphabetic Akkadian (Updated). Humanities Commons Permanent URL . Online at:
Minoan Phaistos Disk with Sign Assignments
Minoan Phaistos Disk with Sign Assignments
Minoan Phaistos Disk with Sign Assignments
Image shows the Minoan Phaistos Disk with phonetic sign assignments by Olmsted. Sign assignment charts here.

Second Ring and Inward of the Minoan Phaistos Disk Blames Mixing Motion Powers with Life Powers (Future Aegean Sub-Culture)

(August 10, 2022) Each number labels a square section of text representing a phrase. The texts starts from the outer ring and moves inwards. Akkadian texts love to use epithets for deities so their names have been placed in parentheses.

Translation into Akkadian

  1. (13) apa pa’u ša
  2. (14) lu ṣu ya
  3. (15) azû Ḫu
  4. (16) mūšu bi qu zu
  5. (17) ru sagȗ Ḫu
  6. (18) awu daku
  7. (19) aku ki
  8. (20) amu za
  9. (21) gi awa daku
  10. (22) gi kânu ri
  11. (23) du išu
  12. (24) du madu
  13. (25) du na yapa
  14. (26) gi awa daku
  15. (27) su uqu idu
  16. (28) ramu ša na du
  17. (29) a du na ri
  18. (30) madu

Into English

  1. The Veilers (dead spirits of Selene) are similar to the divine-birds.
  2. By lacking inactivity,
  3. by associating with Hu,
  4. the night eliminates the nourishing-powers from the divine-threads.
  5. Eagle-vultures are making trouble for Hu.
  6. The motion-empowerer (Su) is removing things.
  7. The emotion-owls are involved with
  8. the Reed-boat’s (Ayu) eliminators.
  9. Energy is being removed by the motion-empowerer (Su)
  10. (22) Energy is tinkering-with the eagle-vulture-powers.
  11. The life-growth-powers are being confused.
  12. The life-growth-powers are being manifested
  13. (25) The life-growth-powers make beautiful the Revealer
  14. Energy is being removed by motion-powers.
  15. Su’s group are life-channeling,
  16. Their emotional-releasing life-empowers the Revealer (Yahu)
  17. His life-growth-power is revealing the eagle-vulture’s
  18. manifestations.


Olmsted, D.D. (September 17, 2021) Translation of the Minoan Phaistos Disk in Alphabetic Akkadian (Updated). Humanities Commons Permanent URL . Online at:
Izbet Sartah Ostracon with text
The Izbet Sartah Ostracon with text. Image from from from Kochavi, M. (1977). Red letter assignments by Olmsted.
The red circle shows the storage pit in which the Izbet Sartah Ostracon was found.
The red circle shows the storage pit in which the Izbet Sartah Ostracon was found. Drawing from Kochavi, M. (1977)

Aegean Philistine Izbet Sartah Ostracon in Levant Blames Drought on Envy ~ 1000 BCE (Levant Text 6)

(August 9, 2022) The Izbet Sartah Ostracon (pottery shard) seems to be a priestly student exercise. The first lines were written by the teacher which the student probably had to read back. The student in a slightly different letter style then imperfectly added an abc list as the last line.

Translation in Akkadian (right to left)

  1. a’û ṣarāḫu a tu. a’û [ ]
  2. šū tu ne’u qu Ḫu. a tu lu Ayu. [ ] ṭa’u bu. Ṭu [ ]
  3. bu qu qaqû
  4. qi’u qu galû. Nu ḫamû. a tu lu edû. zu qu se’u ta’û. a’û lu aḫû. lu pa’ȗ du [ ]

In English

  1. Motion-powers are being excited by this magic. Motion-powers …
  2. Magical correspondences are affecting the divine threads of Hu. This magic is going without Ayu. [missing word] is coming near the nourishments. Thu [ ].
  3. Nourishments are being threaded by the snake-birds
  4. Envy detaches the threads. The Revealer is paralyzed. This magic lacks awareness. Thread elimination is inhibiting the grazing. The motion-powers lack supporters. The lack of divine-birds for the life-powers [ ]
  5. (student) A B G D E Ḫ Z Ṭ W K L M N S I ’ Š P Q Ṣ T (missed the R, conflated P and Q signs, and reversed signs for B and L)

Line 1 states the common view that motion powers move the fertility fluids through the life network of Atu (Hu and Ba'al)

Line 2 states that because of the rituals of magic crafters that the goddess Ayu who normally trims the unwanted network lines is being inhibited. Thu is the hermaphrodite connective deity of the motion powers.

(Continue Reading)

Line 3 refers to "snake birds" which are the motion power's equivalent to the link trimming eagle-vultures of the life powers.

Line 4 states that the emotion of envy is behind the emotion magic of the magic crafters and that is what is detaching the threads of the life network. This paralyzes the Revealer (god Yahu) because his activities need to be triggered by the fertility fluids. This lack of threads for rain and plant growth is drying up the pastures.

This pottery shard (ostracon) was found during the 1976-1978 excavation at Izbet Sartah which is located in what is now in Rosh-Ha''ayin, a far eastern suburb of Tel Aviv. This was the border between the coastal plain and the hill country. Its site overlooked the Nahal (Wadi) Raba valley which is a major tributary to the Yarkon River leading to the coast. This inscription was first published in 1977 by the excavation’s lead excavator Moshe Kochavi (Kochavi 1977). The shard dimensions are 16 x 9 cm and it has never been translated.

The small settlement at Izbet Sartah was sort lived only being in existence during the eras of Iron Age 1A (1190-1140 BCE) and Iron Age 1B (1140-980 BCE). It only has 3 strata. The lowest strata was settled by the Philistines and was composed of small wooden or mud brick dwellings with adjacent storage pits. After the great drought ended and prosperity returned these poor dwellings were cleared away to make room for a stone 4-room house located at the center of the settlement. While typically thought of as Israelite this style of house seems to have been a standard style for the whole area.

The stone house was surrounded by dozens of smaller poorer buildings. This lasted until the settlement was temporarily abandoned around 1020 BCE for a time long enough for the stone house to fall into disrepair. The last phase of settlement did not last long but its people were able to return and repair the four-room house until it was permanently abandoned around 980 BCE.

This abandonment suggests that some conflict forced its people to flee. This conflict would have been the same one which led to the complete destruction of Shechem and nearby Shiloh by fire around 1000 BCE by an unknown group. At the time Shechem was the ruling city of the hill country based upon its size and common pottery culture (Finkelstein, 2019). The people of Israel were these hill people.

Previous Translation Attempts

Scholars trying to translate this inscription have been puzzled. In 1978, Joseph Navah claimed that the lines in this inscription:

“do not seem to comprise a text in any Semitic language. For the time being the ostracon can best be described as the scratching of some semi-literate person, who after writing the abecedary not very successfully, merely scratched an agglomeration of random letters.” (Naveh 1978)

In 1980 Frank Cross gave this opinion:

Many of its problems will be solved only as the corpus of 13th-11th century B.C. swells with future finds. Meanwhile the ostracon will stimulate lively discussion and disagreement, as the papers of Demsky (1977: 14-27) and Navah (1978: 31-35) demonstrate. The chief barrier to precise analysis of the text is the lack of skill on the part of the scribe – if he may be dignified by such a title. Naveh is surely correct in describing the ostracon as “the scratching of some semi-literate person, who after writing the abecedary, not very successfully, merely scratched an agglomeration of random letters” (Naveh 1978: 31). The sherd is, I believe, simply a learner’s practice tablet….. (Cross, 1980)


Cross, F.M. 1980 Newly Found Inscriptions in Old Canaanite and Early Phoenician Scripts. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. No. 238, pages 1-20
Kochavi, M. (1977) An Ostracon of the Period of the Judges from Izbet Sartah. Tel Aviv 4:1-13. Online at:
Navah, J. (1978) Some Considerations on the Ostracon from Izbet Sartah. Israel Exploration Journal 28:31-35
 Leg of Etruscan bronze statue called Putto Graziani with letter assignments

Etruscan Bronze called Putto Graziani

It is now displayed at Museo Gregoriano Etrusco which is the Vatican Museum devoted to the Etruscan civilization.

Etruscan Boy Statue Text States that Motion and Life Powers Can Act Independently (600 BCE)

(August 22, 2022) This independence is the Aegean sub-culture view on relationship between the spiritual powers. In contrast the Phoenicians are always supportive of the magical motion powers and blame the life powers while the Israelites are supportive of the life powers and blame the magical motion powers.

This hollow cast bronze statue was found at Sanguineto, on the northern shores of Lake Trasimeno, in 1587 in the Tiber Valley. Based on its artistic style some scholars dated it to about 200 BCE but its letter style points toward 600 BCE.

Translation in Akkadian - Text Med 26.1

(read right to left)
  1. Su lu erru
  2. emu ša ebu
  3. zu anu
  4. bu pu erru

In English

  1. Su can go without the enclosed-region (sky-shell and above)
  2. The supervisor (Ayu) can be similar to the sky-shell
  3. Eliminations can consider the filling (of invisible life forms)
  4. Nourishments can be opened by the enclosed-region

First line states that because Su is a motion power source and the enclosed region is the life power source they can act independently of each other.

Second line states that Ayu is similar to the sky shell's network because she is the goddess power who edits its linkages.

Third line states that the editing of these network connection are done with considerations of what life forms need to be manifested on earth.

Fourth line states that nourishments for the earth can be provided by the life powers without the magical motion powers.

The Fake Translation Going Around

Often online webpages will claim the translation is:

  • tecsans’l.cve (In Etruscan)

  • "To the god Tec Sans as a gift" (in English)

Yet none of these sites provides a source for this translation. The reader can easily see that the claimed letters are nothing like what actually exists on the bronze statue. Finally, no such language as Etruscan exists because they spoke a dialect of Akkadian.

Carthage Stone as display at the Carthage National Museum in Byrsa, Tunisia. Photo from م ض via Wikimedia Commons at:
Carthage Stone as display at the Carthage National Museum in Byrsa, Tunisia. Photo from م ض via Wikimedia Commons at:

Line by Line Explanation

  1. Threads are the channels of the life network through which fertility fluids flow to trigger Yahu to manifest life forms. But, fertility fluids affected by negative human emotions which are not being covered up but are instead being made manifest by the motion source god and full moon god Su. The sun god Hu represents the life network but it is not being properly formed.
  2. Thu is the hermaphrodite motion power deity for the connective layer of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm. He is the one who normally filters out negative human emotions but he is being intimidated by the source power of this motion powers which is Su.
  3. Eagle vultures are the familiars which edit the life network by cutting off unwanted links.
  4. Lack of drought depends on a working life network represented by the sun god Hu and the pushing of the fertility fluids through it by spiritual motion (wind) powers represented by the owl familiar.
  5. Humans emotions are causing the misery
  6. The astrological motion powers are in control of human emotions right now.
  7. This line makes a connection between the life powers and motion powers by using the analogy of sex.

Translation of Carthage Stone Text Blames Drought on Negative and Unblocked Emotions (170 BCE)

(September 5, 2022) This text is blaming a drought on negative and unblocked human emotions. Normally the connective hermaphrodite motion power deity, Thu, blocked most of these negative emotions before they could affect the flow of fertility fluids through the life network represented by sun god Hu. In this case Thu is being restrained by the astrological motion source powers represented by the full moon god Su.

Translation in Akkadian (Med Text 13)

(read right to left. Capital letters on stone. Inner vowels inferred)
  1. Lu Qu ḪaWu Le'u. IA Šu Qu. E ḪaSu. Su IMu Du. Mu Ta'u Ru. E ReTu A. Tu NūNu Bu Ḫu.
  2. Tu Lu Ṭu. MuTa Lu Ṭu U APu Nu. Ba'u I' QaRu. Apu Nu. Ba'u Yabu A Tu MaNu. ḪaNu Su Bu NuNu.
  3. Du RuQu Bu. Nu HuNu AWu. Hu Bu Ru. Nu MaṬu. Nu A Ma'u Ya Hu Mu. IWu Qu Se'u. Bu PaMu IDu RaQu.
  4. Bu Pamu ID RaQu. Bu Nu Be'u. Ya Ḫu Nu A Bu. NaBu PaMu ID Raqu. Lu IṢu ŠuḪu U Aku Nu A.
  5. Ṣu Ḫu RaQu Nu. Ṣu Qu EMu U Ṣu AMu. A Tu Ba'u. MaDu DaRu QaTu Du. IMu EQu Q. WA T A
  6. A Tu Imu Nu. Ṣu U Ḫu RaSu UMu. A NuNu MaWu. BaQu QeNu RaMu U Le'u IṢu Pu. IMu A Ḫu Pu
  7. U'a Nu Tu. EMu Ḫu TaBu. Mu A Tu. INu AZu Qu. E A Pu Mu. E A U ṢȃLu AYu Lu Gi. Ya Le'u IMu NeKu

In English

  1. The lack of threading is the howling of the astrological-powers. Yahu (IA) is being the same as the threading. Nothing is being covered-up. Su manifests the emotions. Fertility-fluids are being pastured by the eagle-vultures. Nothing is being set by them. Anarchic magic is nourishing Hu.
  2. Magic is lacking Thu. The murderer is lacking Thu and veiling the Revealer (Yahu). The nest (network) determines the fate of Yahu (I'). Veiled is the Revealer. The nest's enemy is supported by this magic. Intimidation by Su is nourishing anarchy.
  3. Life-manifesting is being made difficult for the nourishments (fertility-fluids). The Revealer (Yahu) is being intimidated by the motion-powers. Hu is being nourished by the eagle-vultures. The Revealer is scarce. Those revelations are not being pushed by Hu's fertility-fluids. The redirection of threads is being inhibited. Nourishments are clamoring for the difficult life-channels.
  4. Nourishments are clamoring for the ignored life-channels. Nourishments nest the Revealer. Shouldn’t Hu be revealing those nourishments? The Nourishment-Revealer (Yahu) is clamoring for the difficult life-channels. A lack of scarcity depends on the wind and emotion-owls will be revealing that.
  5. The activity of Hu is being difficult for the Revealer (Yahu). The activity of the threads is being supervised and activated by the Reed-Boat (Ayu). Her magic is nested. The creation of invisible-forms is ending in life-manifestations, (but) emotions are making ineffective the life-threads. Misery is from those magical-powers.
  6. This magic is revealed by emotions. Activity and Hu are being attacked by the storm-powers. This makes anarchic the waters. The swarm (stars) is taking possession of the emotional-releasing and the astrological powers are making-scarce the openings. Those emotions open Hu.
  7. Misery is being revealed by magic. The Supervisor (Ayu) arouses Hu. Fertility-fluids are crafted by magic for that. Moon-eyes are associating with the threads. None of this is opening-up the fertility-fluids. None of this is fighting Ayu’s lack of energy. Do not the astrological-powers emotionally-empower illicit-sex..
Photo of Black Sarcophagus 1 from Sidon which is  mistakenly called the Tabnit Sarcophagus due to a prior false translation
Photo of Black Sarcophagus 1 from Sidon is mistakenly called the Tabnit Sarcophagus due to a prior false translation. The alphabetic text on the bottom is read from right to left. The sarcophagus dates to the great drought which ended the bronze age. It is now in the Istanbul archaeological museum. (Photo from Wikimedia Commons).
This sarcophagus was discovered by Turkish archaeologist Osny Bey Hamdy on May 31, 1887 in a necropolis just east of Sidon (Hamdy and Hamdy-Bey 1887, Eiselen 1907).It is inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphics on its body and Alphabetic Akkadian in Phoenician letters on its base. The translation of the hieroglyphic text indicates that the sarcophagus belonged to an Egyptian general named Penptah who died in Lebanon while the Egyptians controlled the city. This Egyptian control ended during the great drought (1200 to 1140 BCE) which brought the Bronze Age to an end. The last pharaoh in control of Sidon was thus Ramesses III (1184-1153 BCE). This time frame is supported by the alphabetic Akkadian text which is discussing that drought.

Sidon Sarcophagus 1 Belongs To Egyptian General Penptah Who Died During the Great Drought Absolves Magic of Blame (1170 BCE)

(August 14, 2022) This text at the bottom of the sarcophagus absolves magic crafters of any blame for the Great Drought which ended the Bronze Age. This is because their emotion magic was not powerful enough to overcome the storm of generated human emotions like envy which inhibited the flow of fertility fluids through the life network. Without this flow, the Opener (Asher, Asherah) cannot open her gate and allow the Revealer (Yahu) to manifest the life forms.

Translation in Akkadian (Levant Text 11)

(read right to left)

  1. Annu pu qu. Bu nu qu pu e. Ne’u ki qera qamu ya. Pu šēru nu. Mu bu nu.
  2. Aku mu ne’u. Zu ru pu e. Ne’u ki pu raqu ya. Pu šēru nu. Mu ki pu. Bibu aru nu
  3. Zu matu a. Qu pu ya. A ramu aku. Qu lu du. A tu qu e. Aru nu zu ayu qu.
  4. Laqu hu'u. Ya qu tawu. Ayu qu ruggu. Zu napu a tu. Aru ya napu sâlu, Su lu a tu. Aru inu.
  5. Ḫu ru ši. Upu imi nu. Māmȗ ki rabu. Ya qu anu pu, ki pu bibu. Aru nu zu. Nu zu. Ayu palu qu
  6. Hū’u ya qu. Tawu ayu qeru. Gi zu nâpu. Qi’u bu. Qi’u ki qeru qu. Erru bu ru. E aw am lagu.
  7. Ḫu qu laqu ḫū’u. Ya qu tawu ru. Gi zu qu. Ruqu zu nu. Ayu tēnȗ ya zu. Rē’û bu Ḫu. Tu miqqu. E qu kamu.
  8. u umu kapu bu aqu. Ru lu amu.

In English

  1. Considerations (focused emotions) can open the life-threads. Nourishments (offerings) for the Revealer (Yahu) cannot open life-threads. Effective-action involves not burning (killing) the fate-callers (prophets). The Opener (Asher, Asherah) conducts the Revealer (Yahu). Fertility-fluids nourish the Revealer.
  2. Emotion-owls affect the fertility-fluids. The elimination of eagle-vultures does not make openings. Effective-action involves not spurning the Opener. The Opener conducts the Revealer. Fertility-fluids are involved with to the Opener. Gating controls the Revealer.
  3. Elimination is murder. Life-threads are not opened. That is releasing the emotion-owls. Life-threads lack life-empowerment. That magic is not the life-threads. The controllers (Ayu and eagle-vultures) are revealing the elimination of Ayu's life-threads.
  4. Dominate the astrological owls. Are not the threads being pastured. Ayu's threads are false. Eliminations are being filtered by that magic. Don't control the filter with aroma-offerings (animal sacrifices). Su lacks that magic. Control the moon-eye.
  5. Hu is the same-power as the eagle-vultures. Wind-powers reveal the emotion-powers. Water is due to the authorities (planets). Are not the threads being considered by the opener (Asher, Asherah) due to the opener being a gate? The controllers (Ayu and eagle-vultures) are revealing the eliminations. The Revealer has been eliminated. Ayu is ruling the life-threads
  6. Astrological-Owls do not affect the life-threads (directly). The pasture (starry night sky) calls fate on Ayu. Emotional-energy is eliminating the filter (network). Envy is being nourished. Envy is involved with calling-fate on the life-threads. The enclosed-region (life source) is nourishing the eagle-vultures. No motion-power dominates the reed-boat (crescent moon goddess Ayu).
  7. Hu’s life-threads are being dominated by the astrological owls. Are not the life-threads being pastured by the eagle-vultures? Emotional-energy is being eliminated. Spurned threads are eliminating the Revealer. Ayu is not replacing the eliminations. The shepherds (magic crafters) are nourishing Hu. Magic is being undermined. None of the life-threads are being bound.
  8. Stormy activity is handing back the expected nourishments. Eagle-vultures are going without the Reed-Boat.


Eiselen, Frederick C. (1907) Sidon, a Study in Oriental History. MacMillan, New York. Online at:
Hamdy, J. and Hamdey-Bey (1887) Mémorie sur une Nécropole Royale Découverte a Saida. Revue Archéologique. Troisième Série. T. 10 Julliet-Decémbre. pp 138-150