Akkadian Influence on English
(June 5, 2023) Akkadian is the earliest attested language of Europe being the language of the Neolithic farmers who migrated out of Mesopotamia. These farmers began to enter Europe around 6700 BCE. The culture and language of Europe began to change with the arrival of Indo-European speaking invaders beginning in 3500 BCE. Indo-European was a high prestige language which came to dominate the European landscape. This mixing of Indo-European with Akkadian to various degrees formed the main European language classes of Latin, Greek, Celtic, and Germanic. Akkadian only survived in civilizations on the margins of Europe (Minoan, Etruscan, Phoenician, Israelite, Iberian, Pre-Viking Nordic) where it is attested on stone and gold tablets, and on clay pottery shards. English is a result of a later secondary mixing between Germanic and Latin language groups. Yet despite all this some Akkadian words survive in English to this day.
Spread of Akkadian by Neolithic Farmers
Spread of Indo-European
Image above shows the spread of the Indo-Europeans and their language who originated on the northern steppes. These invasions of Europe began around 3500 BCE. The Indo-European Bell Beaker culture did not reach Britain until around 2400 BCE just after the building of the last phase of Stonehenge was built. Were they settled they replaced 90% to 60% of the farmer genetics. (Image from:
Akkadian Words Found in English
Etymology is the study of word origin and transmission through time. It is not to be confused with Entomology which is the study of insects. Those who do not know the difference bug me (old joke!).
Image (2014) from Les Murry at: https://triangulations.wordpress.com/2014/09/30/the-history-of-the-english-language-a-diagram/
Akkadian Words Found in English
(September 27, 2023) Many English words come from Akkadian as does the grammatical structures of "ongoing" or "continuous" tense and the "do support" (Akkadian Y letter start) sentence constructions. (For a description of the problem see the section entitled "Supposed Celtic Syntax in English" at https://www.arrantpedantry.com/2014/12/01/celtic-and-the-history-of-the-english-language/
The earliest English words came from both Latin and Old Norse/German. Latin speakers acquired their Akkadian words from their northern Akkadian speaking neighbors, the Etruscans. Many Old Norse words also derive from Etruscan whose writing spread north and ended up as the Elder Futhark Runes. This writing only ceased around by 500 CE. Significantly, Akkadian has never been considered as a word source in European etymological studies until now because no one imagined such a connection existed. These Akkadian source words include:
Undley Gold Bracteate From Britain (400 CE)
This text is in Akkadian and it has the word "super." This etymological connection between Akkadian and English is as good as such connections get.
(June 16, 2023) Bracteates are a pendant style jewelry usually worn on a necklace. The imagery on this one is a mix of Roman and Druid. Just under the chain ring is a Druid Spiral doublet. To the left of that is a symbol at bottom of this photo is the Roman symbol of the infants Romulus and Remous feeding at the teats of a wolf (milk is a fertility fluid as mentioned in the text). Between the two are images for the sun (god Hu, life power) and full moon (god Su, astrological motion power) indicating this bracteate is about the integration of those two classes of spiritual powers. Notice the moon is similar to the eye in the helmeted figure which seems to indicate the figure represents the full moon god Su. The full moon had the epithet of "observer" in Alphabetic Akkadian. Diameter: 2.30 centimeters. Weight: 2.24 grams. Letter assignments by Olmsted
From British Museum. Museum number: 1984,1101.1. Online at: https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/H_1984-1101-1
Translation of Undley Bracteate
(June 16, 2023) The Akkadian text on this pendant seems to be a tongue twister. The text also uses bound-runes for the first three words. This combining of signs into words is also seen in cuneiform texts.
This text is a plea for avoiding a drought by using magic. It is claiming not enough rain is being made because the fertility-fluids needed to trigger it is not being pushed (activated) enough to get through the life network of Hu.
Translation in Akkadian (Celt Text 11)(read right to left in the traditional Druid direction as the bracteate is rotated counter clockwise. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Verbs are italic bold)
- ŠaPu, ŠaPu, ŠaPu ṢaPu. ŠaPu Ṣu. Mu Ṣu Ya (Celt 11.1)
(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)
- Make-super, make-super, make-super the soaking. Make-super the activity-level. Fertility-fluids are not being activated.
Akkadian Elder Futhark Runes on Hoogebeintum Comb from Friesland (600 CE)
This comb is made out of an antler. It was found in 1928 in an inhumation grave dug in a human made coastal mound. These are known as terpen in Friesland and wierden in Groningen.
Found on page 193 of the thesis entitled "Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts" by Looijenga, Jantina Helena. Online at: https://pure.rug.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/3230061/thesis.pdf
A great ouline of the history by History With Hilbert. Some Old Frisian/English/Norse/Germanic place names with Akkadian roots:
- Hearg - "Shrine" from Akkadian ḪaR.Gi meaning "Liver Energizer" (as opposed to astrological energy). Livers were the source of human emotions and hence a source of magical motion powers on earth.
- Aaalburg - "Holy Place" from Akkadian life source god Alu meaning divine and Indo-European "berg" meaning place.
- Halo - "holy" from Akkadian life source god Alu
Timeline of Northern Europe Paganism As Outlined In Video
(April 1, 2023)
279 CE - Romans begin retreat from the Rhine delta lands
400 CE - Land mostly depopulated
500 CE - Repopulation by people defined as Anglo-Saxon coming from coastal Denmark, Germany, and possibly Norway. Word "Angle" seems to come from the Akkadian phrase A.NaG meaning "those of the coast."
670 CE - Pagan Frisian kingdom ruled by kings Aldgils and Redbad enters the Christian historical record when they come into conflict with the Christian Frankish kingdom which is trying to expand northwards. This is the beginning of the Northern Christian Pagan War.
719 CE - Death of king Redbad. Franks conquer most of Frisia and start forcible Christian conversions. This is when Elder Futhark ceases to be written in favor Younger Futhark which is in their native language (Earliest Old Frisian/Norse/German)
754 CE - Death of Saint Boniface after he cut down a Druid sacred oak called Thunar's Oak. This was an oak representing the boundary crossing power of the hermaphrodite deity Thu or more specifically the magical motion "powers of Thu" written as Thunu.
805 CE - Christian conquest complete. Conquerors record of existing law codes in the Lex Frisionum dated to 800 CE.
810 CE - First Viking raids which at first seems to be a continuation of the Pagan/Christian religious war.
920 CE - Christianity victorious
1100 CE - Local monks begin writing in Latin