About Runic Texts Shown on the Left Menu (200 BCE to 720 CE)

A great historical outline by History With Hilbert. The following are some Old Frisian/English/Norse/Germanic place names with Akkadian roots:

  1. Hearg - "Shrine" from Akkadian ḪaR.Gi meaning "Liver Energizer" (as opposed to astrological energy). Livers were the source of human emotions and hence a source of magical motion powers on earth.
  2. Aaalburg - "Holy Place" from Akkadian life source god Alu meaning "divine" and Indo-European "berg" meaning place.
  3. Halo - "holy" from Akkadian life source god Alu
Most rune writing in northern Europe would have been done on perishable wood such as shown photo. This sample is from Beren, Norway. Based on letter styles these date to the coexistence era between Druidry and Christianity (700 to 1200 CE). Photo from: https://www.arild-hauge.com/norway.htm

Timeline of Dutch Paganism As Outlined In Video

(April 1, 2023)

Old Norse to English Dictionary by Cleasby & Vigfusson

Online version of the classic Old Norse / Old Icelandic dictionary by Richard Cleasby & Gudbrand Vigfusson, originally published in 1874. It is the largest Old Norse to English dictionary. Containing over 35,000 entries with English definitions. Online at: https://cleasby-vigfusson-dictionary.vercel.app/

English to Old Norse Dictionary At "The Vikings of Bjornstad" 


(Feb 1, 2023) Central Europe map showing the find locations of the oldest form of runestones called "Elder Futhark." They are all north of Switzerland and North Italy which are home of their predecessor Alpine Celtic (Lepontic) texts. These were followed by a letter style known as "Younger Futhark" dating to between 750-1500 CE which is probably when their language changed from Akkadian to Old Norse. Image by Berig via Wikimedia Commons at https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Elder_futhark_inscriptions.png. Map is based on information in Jansson (1987). Runes in Sweden, p. 186

Comprehensive Elder Futhark rune site put together by Arild Hauge so many thanks to him!: https://www.arild-hauge.com/eindex.htm

Norwegian Uni-Museum which is an online joint collection site for the university museums of cultural history in Tromsø, Trondheim, Stavanger, Bergen and Oslo: https://www.unimus.no/portal/#/

Swedish Rune Map: https://runkartan.se/english/

Horse use their front feet to get  what they want

Cows rely on their humans to break ice for them although they can break ice by accidentally walking on it.

Indo-European Culture Was Based On Horses 

(July 8, 2023) The importance of horses to the Indo-Europeans would be reflected in their ritual centers and later European (Druid and Indo-European) ritual centers where decentralized tribalism remained the main form of social organization instead of centralized empires around the Mediterranean.

The reason the steppe people of Eurasia were  involved with the horse was because horses could survive their winters. They had the behavior of using their hooves to break through thin layers of snow and ice to get at the vegetation. Cattle don't do this. Bison can survive deep snows but not ice because they use their heads to push aside the snow which is why they have such big heads and necks. Bison can survive in regions with deeper snowfall than horses.

Consequently, their primary use of horses was for food and milk. Only later were they adapted for transport and warfare because they turned out to be faster than cattle. Yet the Druid cattle were found to be more productive in terms of milk and meat production. 

The Indo-Europeans also seem to been the first to use crop rotation in order to keep the same plots of land fertile. This also manured their fields since one of the rotations was pasturing.  In contrast, Druid culture was based upon slash and burn agriculture. This made the Indo-European farming much more productive than found in Druid Culture.  

Reconstructed torq from the treasure of Pietroassa as scanned from book by Henric Trenk (1875). The ring is part of a hord found in Romanian Wallachia and has a diameter of 16 centimeters (6 1/2 inches). Inscription was mostly destroyed by thieves who were cutting down the torq to melt. The text can no longer be read. What is in this image is a "restored" text which cannot be trusted for a translation. Image from: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pietroassa_ring_1875.jpg

For Reference: Gold Ring (Torq) of Pietroassa (400-450 CE)

Photo of Ring (Torq) of Pietroassa as it appeared in April 1994 at the exhibition at  Schirn Kunsthalle at Frankfurt am Main, where the object was part of the exhibition Goldhelm in the Museum für Vor- und Frühgeschichte. 
Found on page 97 of the thesis entitled "Runes around the North Sea and on the Continent AD 150-700; texts & contexts" by Looijenga, Jantina Helena. Online at: https://pure.rug.nl/ws/portalfiles/portal/3230061/thesis.pdf

Norse Constellations

(August 3, 2023) We do not really know many of the Old Norse names for the heavenly bodies and constellations which they used despite their many Pagan texts. This is because even these texts tended to use Latin and Greek names. Yet they must have used stars to navigate across the various seas.

The existence of a Norse calendar is mentioned in the Icelandic chronicle “Íslendingabók” (c 1000 CE) regarding the Icelander's adoption of the Roman Julian calendar between 700 and 1000 CE. This text indicates that the Icelanders were aware that the motions of the sun to define the year did not perfectly match the 12 periods of the moon which divided up the year. 

In Völuspa in the Eddas the origin of the stars and planets are mentioned, as well as their end at Ragnarök. The world was created from the body of the giant Ymer (Akkadian IMu-er = "emotion-maker"). His skull forms the firmament and is held in place by four dwarves, where sparks from Muspellheim (Akkadian MS.PL-realm = "realm of the night.rulers") form the stars. Their place in the sky was determined by the gods and some were given paths they will roam.

In prosaic Edda, which is a textbook on writing poetry, we find more stories where stars are mentioned. As in the Greek mythology, stories explain how they ended up in the sky.

In Skáldskaparmál, the story of Tjatse is told. Tjatse managed, with the assistance of Loki, to kidnap Idun, the keeper of the apples of youth, from Asgard. Loki managed to save her but was pursued by Tjatse who got killed. Tjatse's daughter Skade came and demanded compensation for her father. The compensation included among other things a husband. In addition Odin or Thor placed Tjatse's eyes in the sky.

  • Tjatse (Akkadian T.IT.S = Astronomy-magic.Omens.Su or "Astrological-omens from Su" where Su is the dark new moon god surround by the celestial light goddess Selene). So the eyes of Tjatse were the bright and new moons.

The other story where a star or constellation is mentioned is in the epilogue of the fight between Thor and the giant Hrungne. Thor was injured in the fight, and a small piece of stone got stuck in his head. In order to get it out, he sought help from a Vala, a type of oracle, named Groa. When Thor felt that the stone were coming out, he told Groa that he helped her husband Aurvandil, to escape from the land of the giants. During the escape Aurvandil froze his big toe, which Thor broke off and threw into the sky to become a star or a constellation, Aurvandil's toe. This made Groa so happy that she forgot her magic, and Thor still has that piece of stone in his head.

”Aurvandil's toe” is most likely the Corona Borealis, partly because of the likeness with a toe. But there are also other indications making this identification the most likely. Corona Borealis is a spring constellation, which is of importance. In ”Gesta danorum" written by Saxo Grammaticus [4], one finds a story of a King, Horwendil, who is fighting a duel with a Norwegian king, Koller (cold). The duel ends with Horwendil cutting off Koller's foot and thus killing him. This story is probably based on an old myth of the fight between seasons, making Koller's foot or “Aurvandil's toe” a sign of spring or summers victory over the cold winter. 

While not a constellation the rainbow is related. In the Eddas the rainbow is called "Bifrost" In the north-western European traditions the rainbow is the road of the dead. This road in Norse mythology called the road to Hel. But the rainbow is also the road to the “other” world. The name Bifrost originates from two Indo-European words, bif, meaning "shimmering" or "trembling," and rost meaning "road." In the poetic Edda, Bifrost is described as the shimmering road and as the road to Asgard. The spirit Heimdall  (Akkadian ""Realm-DaLu" meaning "realm of water-transport") is the guardian of Bifrost. He lives in a house ”high up in the sky.”  This indicates Bifrost is the rainbow.  


Jonas Persson (2003-2023) Norse Constellations. Online at: https://www.digitaliseducation.com/resources-norse.html

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