Celtic Culture

(October 6, 2023) When the Indo-European invaders settled down in Europe around 2000 BCE five major mixed cultures emerged from different mixings of the native Druidic with the Indo-European cultures. The purely Druid cultures (Minoan, Etruscan, Phoenician, Israelite) survived temporarily on the periphery. These new mixed cultures were:

  1. Celtic (red) 
  2. Nordic (blue)
  3. Slavic (yellow)
  4. Mycenean (orange).
  5. Latin (green)

The mixed cultures (except for the Latins) developed along major riverine trading networks. The Celts originated around the Danube/Rhine corridor and the English and Irish channels, The Nordic (Norse/Germans) originated around the Scandinavian coastline and rivers of the Elbe, Oder, and Vistula. The Slavonic people originated along the Dnieper and Don rivers and the Black Sea coastline. The Myceneans (Hellenes/Greeks) originated along the Greek rivers and the Aegean sea. The language of these mixed people were various mixes of Indo-European and Druidic Akkadian although their priestly class (the Druids of classical times) continued to speak and write in Akkadian. 

Halstatt material culture is shown in yellow (1200-400 BCE) and La Tene material culture) is shown in Green (450-50 BCE). These terms are material manifestations which existed within the more widespread religious/language Celtic Culture.
Information from Atlas of the Celtic World, by John Haywood; London Thames & Hudson Ltd., 2001, pp. 30-37.By Dbachmann via Wikimedia Commons at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Hallstatt_LaTene.png
This video is by Kings and Generals who always produce good historical documentaries although this video is completely wrong in stating that the Druids never wrote anything down. That they say this just shows how deep and thorough the suppression of Druid culture has been. This video points out that "culture" is not consistently used by historians because it can either mean the religious/language culture or the material culture. The two are not necessarily the same. Most archaeologists use it to mean material culture because that is what they work with. In contrast historical linguists use it to mean the religious/language culture of which material culture is a subset. This confustion is addressed in this video.

Origin of Celtic Culture

(Sept 2, 2023)  Celtic culture originated out of the salt trading economy of the Halstatt (yellow) and La Tene (green) Cultures (1300- 500 BCE). The Hallstatt culture originated out of the organization required to mine and trade salt from the salt mines near Salzburg and managing the portage between the Danube and Rhine rivers.  

Celtic (Greek Keltoi) is an Akkadian phrase KL.T (Kalu.Ta) meaning "Motion-Constrainer.of Emotion-Magic"  where "Constrainer" is an epithet for the astrological powers of fate which were one source of motion on earth. The other source was inner emotions. So the Celts were known for their astrological power use to check emotion magic.

By the time of the Celts were known by the Romans and Greeks most of their deity names were made out of Akkadian phrases. This same phenomena also occurred in the Nordic lands with all Norse being Akkadian phrases. Most of the main Celtic deities involve fertility.  The Druids had the concept of invisible "Platonic" universal object shapes long before the Greeks existed. These invisible shapes had to be revealed and manifested.

Some Celtic deities are:

  1. Belenus - Akkadian BL.N  (Belu.Nu) meaning "Life-Constrainer's.Revelations"  According to Greek texts this deity was the sun. In Druid culture the sun represented the life network which directed the divine fertility fluids to trigger life form openings on earth.
  2. Cernunnos  -  Akkadian ṢR.NN.Na (Ṣeru.NuNu.Nu) meaning Life-power's.Chaos.Revealer.  According to Greek texts this god represented the wild fertility of nature. He was shown as a horned god. In southern areas he was the chaos bull.
  3. Epona - Akkadian EP.N (Epu.Na) meaning Drying's.Revealer. According to Greek texts this deity was a horse goddess. In Indo-European cultures horses were thought to pull the chariot containing the sun across the sky. If the sun came to low then the drought would occur and the land would dry out.
  4. Lugh - Akkadian LG (Lagu) meaning attunement as in spiritual communication and connection. He represented skill at business and trade.
  5. Meponos - Akkadian M.P.N (Mu.Pu.Na) meaning "Fertility-fluid's.Opening.Revealer." In order for life to be triggered the feminine had to be opened by the masculine. According to Greek texts this deity represented youth.
  6. Morrigan - Akkadian phrase M.RaG.N meaning "The Fertility-fluid's.False.Empowerment" Fertility-fluids were the transport mechanism for bringing the spiritual life powers to earth. This is a Gaelic Irish epithet for Kate/Hekate emphasizing her life absorption power.
  7. Seqana: from Akkadian S.QN (SaQu.Na) meaning "Fabric.Revealer" where fabric is an epithet for the life network which brings life powers to earth.
  8. Taranis: from Akkadian TR.N  (Taru.Na) meaning "Shape.Revealer." From Greek writings he was the chaotic storm form of the Druid sun god Hu. His rain revealed these invisible life forms as it produced fertility.
  9. Toutatis - Akkadian TT.T (TiTu.Tu)  meaning  fruit.magic.  The fruits of the earth needed to be encouraged and promoted by magic. According to Greek texts this deity was a tribal protector.

Celtic Runestone in Phillack, Cornwall, Britain (499 BCE Drought)

Phillack Stele as it Appeared in 2021 Outside Old Church Vestry at Phillack in Cornwall, England

Stele as it Appeared in 2021 Outside Old Church Vestry at Phillack in Cornwall, England

(Feb 20, 2023) This old vestry is 35 meters east of the church of St. Phillack (St. Felicitas) which is southwest of St. Ives on the north coast of Cornwall. The stele is in front by the corner. This building and stele and was registered with English Heritage in 1988 as a class 2 site number 1365625. It was used as a foundation stone in the first St. Phillack church which was torn down and replaced in 1856. So many more such inscribed stones may be still underground as foundation stones of ancient churches.
So why is this British national treasure out in the weather getting destroyed? This should be front and center in the British Museum.
Photo by Emma Trevarthen and found at: https://historicengland.org.uk/listing/the-list/list-entry/1365625


Chris Bond (2023) Antiquarian Notes on the Prehistory of Cornwall. Cornovia Press, Sheffield
Richard Edmonds (1857-58) The Celtic and Other Antiquities of the Land's End District of Cornwall. Archaeologica Cambrensis 3:3-4, pages 275-295, 350-368, 66-76, 173-183, 274-283
(The above articles were combined into an 1862 book)Richard Edmonds (1862) The Land's End district: its antiquities, natural history, natural phenomena and scenery. Published by J. R. SmithOnline at: https://openlibrary.org/works/OL11647309W/The_Land%27s_End_district_its_antiquities_natural_history_natural_phenomena_and_scenery?edition=key%3A/books/OL23401670M
Phillack Stele as it Appeared in 1890

Phillack Stele as it Appeared in 1890

The mentioned Richard Edmonds in the above caption said this in his book published in 1862 on page 63:
"An inscribed stone, as old perhaps as the last, formed one of the foundation stones of the late church at Phillack. It is 7 3/4 feet long, and now stands outside the wall of the vestry, in the southeastern corner of the courtyard but the inscription appears to be illegible."
Photo found in Bond (2023)
Sideview close-up of the letters with Alphabetic Akkadian letter assignments by Olmsted. These are definitely not Latin which anyone can see. These letters are similar to what is found in Iberia dating to 500 BCE. For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Uncertain Translation of Phillack Stele of Cornwall, Britain

(September 2, 2023) These letters styles are similar to those found in Iberia. We need a better picture to make letter identification more certain!

Translation in Akkadian

(read left to right! Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels) Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. IRu  Ne'u  Tu  MiQi  UZu 
  2. (too uncertain to translate)

In English

  1. Astrological-powers are affecting astrological-magic undermining the frustration.
  2. (too uncertain to read)

Celtic Runestone In Alps From Vergiate, Italy (499 BCE Drought)

Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela from 499 BCE blames astrological powers for a drought

This text was written in response to the 499 BCE drought and blames undisciplined emotional energy for the misery. This Celtic text is a mix of Aegean and Etruscan indicating the Alpine Celts adopted their writing from these two sources. Yet it has a slightly different mix than Mezzovico Stela (Celt Text 2) indicating that text styles had not yet stabilized in this culture. Photo from Lexicon Leponticum (Text VA-6) with letter assignments by Olmsted. For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela 499 BCE
Drawing of Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela 499 BCE

Translation of Vergiate Runestone

This was found by chance in February 1913 less than a kilometer south-east of the little church San Gallo di Ronchi, at the road from Vergiate to Cimbro in Lombardia, Italy. The slab lay 80 cm below the surface together with Roman potsherds and tiles suggesting it had been reused by Romans for something. It was broken when found. Casts were made soon after the discovery and reflect a considerably better state of preservation than the original today.  It has a height 223 cm, breadth 70 cm, width 20 cm. Now at: Museo civico archeologico di Villa Mirabello (Varese).

(Jan 27, 2023) The Po river valley came under the control of a Celtic tribe known  by the Romans as the "Insubres" around 600 BCE.  They sacked Rome in 390 BCE. Yet they were conquered by Rome in the battle of Clastidium (modern Casteggio) in 222 BCE but gained a brief period of freedom when Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in the Second Punic War (218–201 bc). The Insubres were finally subdued by Rome in 196 BCE and gradually lost their identity in the rise of municipal communities. They were granted Latin rights in 89 BCE and full Roman citizenship 40 years later.

Translation in Akkadian (Celtic Text 3)

(read right to left. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. Gi  ILu  Ku  UYu  :  
  2. Gi  Du  UYu  AM  : 
  3. Šu  EWu  :
  4. Ku  A  Du.  IŠu  E  :
  5. Ya  A  Ya'u ....

In English

  1. Emotional-Energy for high-powers is involved with the misery : 
  2. Emotional-Energy for life-manifestations is making miserable the Reed-Boat (Ayu ):
  3. Same for the shaper (Yahu) :
  4. Involve those life-manifestation-powers.  Confuse nothing. :
  5. Do not those Yahu-powers (life form manifestation powers) .... [letters too destroyed to translate]


Lexicon Leponticum. Online at: https://lexlep.univie.ac.at/wiki/VA%C2%B76_Vergiate

Original runestone was sandstone, measuring 1.34 X 0.65 X 0.15 meters This is a replica of the stele of Bensafrim, Lagos, Portugal; 135x75 cm. Museum of Southwest Writing, Almodôvar. The original is in the Museum of Figueira da Foz. Photo by Angel M. Felicisimo at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/elgolem/51988832229/in/album-72157715068387073/

Celtic Runestone From Bensafrim - Portugal 499 BCE

(August 29, 2023) The original stele was discovered in 1882 in the town courtyard centered around the Old Fountain of Bensafrim, Portugal by archaeologists Estácio da Veiga and Santos Rocha. Bensafrim is a former civil parish in the city of Lagos on the southern coast of Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Bensafrim e Barão de São João.

Its find was published by J. Leite de Vasconcellos in "The Portuguese Archaeologist III, 7. 1893."



Photo of original stele as published by J. Leite de Vasconcellos in 1893.

(August 29, 2023) Celtic Runestone from Bensafrim, Portugal. For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Translation of Outer Text in Akkadian (Med Text 37.1)

(read left to right. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Vowels are italic bold) 
  1. Lu  TeṬu  Tu  ḪiTu  Nu  Mu.  MuRu  AḪu  TuKu  Tu.  APu  AMu.  ANu  Gu  ALu.  E'u  LeTu  ZiTu.  
  2. Nu  A  Ne'u.  Nu  A  Pa'u.  Gu  A  Qu.  MaNu  MaMu.  Nu  Zu  Tu  ITu  Ḫu.  
  3. Tu  MaMu  E'u.  Ru  TaṢu  A  Re'u.  A'u  E  AŠu  MaMu.  Tu  TeNu  MaMu.   (The ayin /'/ is an /A/ when it begins a sentence)
(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English

  1. Lack of earth-water is due to astrology-magic joining the Revealer (Yahu) to the fertility-fluids. Rainstorms are attended by discipline for astrology-magic.  Veil the Reed-Boat (Ayu).  Considerations (focused emotions) can energize Alu.  Yahu (E') is being split-off from proper-allocations. 
  2. Reveal those affections (with emotion magic).  Reveal those network-bird-powers. Energize those life-thread-powers.  Support the waters.  Reveal the emanations with astrology-magic which foreshadow Hu.
  3. Astrology-magic can water Yahu (E').  Eagle-vultures can fool these shepherding-powers. Motion-powers are not doing the spewing-forth of the waters. Astrology-magic can replace the waters.
A lecture by Ronald Hutton who is an expert on British Pagan history. It was recorded on 26 April 2023 at Gresham College, London.

Welsh Language And Bardic Court Tales From 1200-1350 CE

(June 29, 2023) Linguistic scholar's of the past divided Europe into 3 parts based upon language:

  1. Norse/Germanic
  2. Celtic
  3. Slavonic

Today we know that these language differences arose from each having different mixing ratios of Indo-European with native Neolithic farmer Akkadian. Additionally, the Celtic languages are further divided into Goidelic or Gaelic (Irish, Manx and Scottish) and Brythonic (Welsh, Cornish and Breton). The Brythonic have a bit more Latin influences than Gaelic. English resulted mostly from later Germanic/Norse (Frisian, Anglo-Saxon) being mixed with Norman (Norse, French). Welsh stabilized as a language only after the Romans left Britain.

Some Welsh Deities and Spiritual Concepts Derived From Druid Akkadian Phrases

-n is an Akkadian noun suffix indicating that the a person's divine powers are meant instead of the persona.

Lady Charlotte Elizabeth Guest (May 19, 1812 – January 15,  1895), later Lady Charlotte Schreiber, was an English linguist who is best known as the first publisher in modern print format of the Mabinogion, the earliest prose literature of Britain. 
She was the wife of Welsh ironmaster John Josiah Guest and  became a leading figure in the study of literature and the wider Welsh Renaissance of the 19th century. With her second husband, Charles Schreiber, she became a well known Victorian collector of porcelain; their collection is held in the Victoria and Albert Museum. She also created major collections of fans, games, and playing cards, which she gave to the British Museum. She was noted as an international industrialist, pioneering liberal educator, philanthropist and elite society hostess. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lady_Charlotte_Guest)
Photo is an enhanced version of one found at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Lady_Charlotte_Guest_(4674585).jpg
Scan of the page from the Red Book of Hergest showing the word "Mabinogi"  in red at the top. This word was adopted as the name of the whole collection. This vellum manuscript is dated to between 1382 and 1410. Still at Jesus College at Oxford.
Photo online at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jesus-College-MS-111_00349_175r_(cropped).jpg

The Welsh Source Texts (Mabinogion) Translated by Lady Charlotte Guest

(June 30, 2023)  Charlotte Guest writes this about the early European texts deriving from royal courts:

In the twelfth and thirteenth centuries there arose into general notoriety in Europe, a body of “Romance,” which in various forms retained its popularity till the Reformation. In it the plot, the incidents, the characters, were almost wholly those of Chivalry, that bond which united the warriors of France, Spain, and Italy, with those of pure Teutonic descent, and embraced more or less firmly all the nations of Europe, excepting only the Slavonic races, not yet risen to power, and the Celts, who had fallen from it. ...
These romances were found in England, France, Germany, Norway, Sweden, and even Iceland, as early as the beginning of the thirteenth and end of the twelfth century. The Germans, who propagated them through the nations of the North, derived them certainly from France. Robert Wace published his Anglo-Norman Romance of the Brut d’Angleterre about 1155. Sir Tristan was written in French prose in 1170; and The Chevalier au Lion, Chevalier de l’Epée, and Sir Lancelot du Lac, in metrical French, by Chrestien de Troyes, before 1200.
From these facts it is to be argued that the further back these romances are traced, the more clearly does it appear that they spread over the Continent from the North-west of France. The older versions, it may be remarked, are far more simple than the later corruptions. In them there is less allusion to the habits and usages of Chivalry, and the Welsh names and elements stand out in stronger relief....
 That Wales possessed an ancient literature, containing various lyric compositions, and certain triads, in which are arranged historical facts or moral aphorisms, has been shown by Sharon Turner, who has established the high antiquity of many of these compositions.
The more strictly Romantic Literature of Wales has been less fortunate, though not less deserving of critical attention. Small portions only of it have hitherto appeared in print, the remainder being still hidden in the obscurity of ancient Manuscripts: of these the chief is supposed to be the Red Book of Hergest, now in the Library of Jesus College, Oxford, and of the fourteenth century. This contains, besides poems, the prose romances known as Mabinogion. The Black Book of Caermarthen, preserved at Hengwrt, and considered not to be of later date than the twelfth century, is said to contain poems only....
There is one argument in favour of the high antiquity in Wales of many of the Mabinogion, which deserves to be mentioned here. This argument is founded on the topography of the country. It is found that Saxon names of places are very frequently definitions of the nature of the locality to which they are attached, as Clifton, Deepden, Bridge-ford, Thorpe, Ham, Wick, and the like; whereas those of Wales are more frequently commemorative of some event, real or supposed, said to have happened on or near the spot, or bearing allusion to some person renowned in the story of the country or district. Such are “Llyn y Morwynion,” the Lake of the Maidens; “Rhyd y Bedd,” the Ford of the Grave; “Bryn Cyfergyr,” the Hill of Assault; and so on. But as these names could not have preceded the events to which they refer, the events themselves must be not unfrequently as old as the early settlement in the country. And as some of these events and fictions are the subjects of, and are explained by, existing Welsh legends, it follows that the legends must be, in some shape or other, of very remote antiquity. It will be observed that this argument supports remote antiquity only for such legends as are connected with the greater topographical features, as mountains, lakes, rivers, seas, which must have been named at an early period in the inhabitation of the country by man. 

The Mabinogion is the title Charlotte Guest gave to her book in which she collected and translated these middle Welsh romance tales. This book was published in 1848.

Story Contents

  1. The Lady of the Fountain
  2. Peredur the Son of Evrawc
  3. Geraint the son of Erbin
  4. Kilhwch and Olwen
  5. The dream of Rhonabwy
  6. Pwyll Prince of Dyved
  7. Branwen the daughter of Llyr
  8. Manawyddan the son of Llyr
  9. Math the son of Mathonwy
  10. The dream of Maxen Wledig
  11. The story of Lludd and Llevelys
  12. Taliesin



Irish Morrigan

Province of Connaught, Ireland is along the wild and hilly west coast.

Bardic Tale "Tain Bo Fraich" Used For Dating the Group

The oldest manuscript authority for the Tain bo Fraich is the Book of Leinster, written before 1150. There are at least two other manuscripts, one in Egerton, 1782 (published by Professor Kuno Meyer in the Zeitschrift fur Celt Philologie, 1902); the other is in MS. XL., Advocates' Library, Edinburgh (published in the Revue Celtique, Vol. XXIV.). 
The tale consists of two parts. The first and longer portion, gives the adventures of Fraech at the court of Ailill and Maev of Connaught, his courtship of their daughter, Finnabar, and closes with a promised betrothal. The second part is an account of an expedition undertaken by Fraech to the Alps " in the north of the land of the Long-Beards," to recover stolen cattle, as well as "his wife."  In later bardic tales Fraech was one of the first of the Connaught champions to be killed by Cuchulain in the war of Cualnge. 
Except for one short reference at the end of the 2nd part no connection exists between the two parts. The small reference in the 2nd part is that Fraech did, as he had promised in the first part, join Ailill and Maev upon the War of Cualnge.  Their style is also much different. The first part has one of the most complicated plot of any Irish romance. It abounds in brilliant descriptions and while being in prose feels highly poetic. The second part is a straight-forward, rapid action adventure story. 
Because the second part of the story contain so many references to nations outside Ireland it can be dated. Fraech and his companions go over the sea from Ulster, i.e. to Scotland; then through "north Saxon-land " to the sea of Icht (i.e. the sea of Wight or the Enghsh Channel) ; then to the Alps in the north of the land of the Long-Beards or Lombards. The Long -Beards do not appear in Italy until the end of the sixth century.  The mention of North Saxon-Land reaching down to the sea of Wight suggests that there was then a South Saxon-Land also. This dates the story to before the end of the 700's, when both Saxons and Long-Beards were overcome by Charlemagne. 


  1. Ailill -King of Connaught. (an actual historical figure as confirmed in other records who ruled Connaught from 445–482) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_kings_of_Connacht
  2. Medb or Maev - Queen of Connaught. 
  3. Findabar or Finnabar - their daughter. 
  4. Froech or Fraecli - pronounced "Fraych,"  son of a Connaught "man and a fairy mother. 
  5. Conall Cernach- meaning "Conall the Victorious," champion of Ulster. 
  6. Two Irish Women - in captivity in the Alps, north of Lombardy. 
  7. Lothar or Lothnr - a follower of Fraech. 
  8. Bicne - a follower of Conall. 


  1. Befind, -Fraech's fairy mother. 
  2. Boand - pronounced like "owned," sister to Befind; Queen of the Fairies. 
  3. Three Fairy Harpers

Earliest Irish Bardic Tales Involving Morrigan - 800 CE But Involving Earlier Information

(October 7, 2023) "Morrigan" is an Akkadian epithet from Ireland for the Druid Goddess Kate/Hekate. The epithet is the Akkadian phrase M.RaG.N meaning "The Fertility-fluid's.False.Empowerment." Fertility-fluids were the transmission medium for the spiritual life powers. Consequently, this epithet emphasizes Kate/Hekate's association with death.

The earliest set of surviving Irish Bardic Tales involve the movement or flow (Irish word "tain") of cattle which was the main indicator of a chiefdom's wealth. The "Great Tain," (Táin Bó Cúailnge) is the central story of the Irish Heroic Age. This was accompanied by 14 "Lesser Tains," 3 of which are lost. The surviving ones are:  the Tain bo Aingen, Dartada, Flidais, Fraich, Munad, Regamon, Regamna, Ros, Ruanadh, Sailin, and Ere. Dating is provided by the Tain Bó Fraich while the goddess Morrigan is mention in the Táin Bó Regamna and the Táin Bó Cúailnge, both which involve the ancient Irish province of Connaught (Connacht) raiding Ulster who fights back with their hero Cúchulainn. Connaught (Connacht) was a hilly, wild and economically poor western province of Ireland

Táin Bó Regamna

In the Táin Bó Regamna, Cúchulainn encounters  Morrígan but does not recognize her as she drives a magical heifer from what he thinks is his territory. 

This story is found in the same two manuscripts that also record the Tain bo Dartada and the Tain bo Regamon ; namely the Yellow Book of Lecan, and Egerton 1782.  According to traditional scholarship its title of Tain bo Regamna is not connected with anything in the story. Yet "Regamna" is the Akkadian phrase RaG.M.N meaning "The falseness of.fertility-fluid.powers." so it does actually refer to Morrigan. 

Here is the core of the story (starting at page 132 of Leahy, 1902):

They went out thereupon till they came to Ath da Ferta. When they were there, straightway they heard the rattle of a chariot from the quarter of the loamy district of Culgaire. Then they saw the chariot come before them, and one chestnut (lit. red) horse in it. The horse was one- footed, and the pole of the chariot passed through the body of the horse, till a wedge went through it, to make it fast on its forehead. A red ^ woman was in the chariot, and a red mantle about her, she had two red eye-brows, and the mantle fell between the two ferta'^ of her chariot behind till it struck upon the ground behind her. A great man was beside her chariot, a red ^ cloak was upon him, and a forked staff of hazel at his back, he drove a cow in front of him. 
"That cow is not joyful at being driven by you!" said Cuchulain. 
"The cow does not belong to you," said the woman, "she is not the cow of any friend or acquaintance of yours." 
" The cows of Ulster," said Cuchulain, " are my proper (care)." ......
I am a female satirist in truth," she said, " and he is Daire mac Fiachna from Cualnge : I have brought the cow as fee for a master-poem." 
" Let me hear the poem then," said Cuchulain. 
"Only remove thyself from me," said the woman ; " it is none the better for thee that thou shakest it over my head." 
Thereon he left her until he was between the two poles of her chariot, and she sang to him.  And the song was a song of insult. Again at the car he sprang, But nothing he found before him.  As soon as the car he had neared, The woman, the horse, and the chariot, the cow, and the man disappeared. 
Then he saw that she had become a black bird upon a branch near to him. "A dangerous ^ (or magical) woman thou art," said Cuchulain. " Henceforward," said the woman, " this clay-land shall be called dollnid (of evil,)" and it has been the Grellach Dolluid ever since. 
''If only I had known it was you," said Cuchulain, " not thus should we have separated." 
" What thou hast done," said she, " shall be evil to thee from it." 
" Thou hast no power against me," said Cuchulain."
I have power indeed," said the woman ; " it is at the guarding of thy death that I am and I shall be," said she. "I brought this cow out of the fairy-mound of Cruachan, that she might breed by the Black Bull of Cualnge, that is the Bull of Daire macFiachna. It is up to that time that thou have to live, so long as the calf which is in this cow's body is a yearling.  And it is this that shall lead to the Tain bo Cualnge.

Táin Bó Cúailnge

In the Táin Bó Cúailnge, Queen Medb of Connacht launches an invasion of Ulster to steal the bull Donn Cuailnge. Morrígan appears to the bull in the form of a crow and warns him to flee. Cúchulainn then defends Ulster by fighting a series of single combats at fords against Medb's champions. In between combats, the Morrígan appears to him as a young woman and offers him her love and her aid in the battle, but he rejects her offer. In response, she intervenes in his next combat, first in the form of an eel who trips him, then as a wolf who stampedes cattle across the ford, and finally as a white, red-eared heifer leading the stampede, just as she had warned in their previous encounter. However, Cúchulainn wounds her in each form and defeats his opponent despite her interference. Later, she appears to him as an old woman bearing the same three wounds that her animal forms had sustained, milking a cow. She gives Cúchulainn three drinks of milk. He blesses her with each drink, and her wounds are healed. He regrets blessing her for the three drinks of milk, which is apparent in the exchange between the Morrígan and Cúchulainn: "She gave him milk from the third teat, and her leg was healed. 'You told me once,' she said,'that you would never heal me.' 'Had I known it was you,' said Cúchulainn, 'I never would have.'"As the armies gather for the final battle, she prophesies the bloodshed to come. 


A. H. Leahy, translator (1902) HEROIC ROMANCES OF IRELAND VOL. II Late Fellow of Pembroke College, Cambridge. With Preface, Notes, and Literal Translations. Illustrations by Caroline Watts. Ballantyne Press. Online at: https://archive.org/stream/heroicromancesof02leah/heroicromancesof02leah_djvu.txt

Remarks (Remscela) On the Tain Bo Fraich Found With Various Later Copies.

These are  expressly stated in the text to be "remscela" to the Great Tain (Indo-European "Great Flow" with "flow" being an epithet for anything the flows such as cattle, sheep, river water). The word "remscela" is indo-European meaning "remarks on the scheme."

  1. When to an Irish court of old, 
  2. Came men who flocked from near and far 
  3. To hear the ancient tale that told of
  4. Cuchulain's deeds in Cualgnes War 
  5. Often to hear that famous tale for fun
  6. Before their chief bard they would hail. 
  7. Amid the throng some lesser man 
  8. Arose to tell a lighter tale; 
  9. Had to tell how Maev and Ailill planned 
  10. Their mighty hosts might best be fed 
  11. When they towards the Cualgne land 
  12. All Ireland's swarming armies led; 
  13. How Maev the youthful princes sent 
  14. To harry warlike Regamon, 
  15. How they, who trembling from her went, 
  16. His daughters and his cattle won; 
  1. How Ailill's guile gained Dartas' cattle, 
  2. How vengeful fairies marked that deed; 
  3. How Fergus won his royal spouse 
  4. Whose cattle all Ireland's hosts could be fed; 
  5. How in a form grotesque and weird, 
  6. Cuchulain found a Power Divine; 
  7. On how shapes of beasts appeared 
  8. The Magic Men, who kept the Swine; 
  9. Or how the rowan's (a tree) guardian snake 
  10. Was roused by order of the king; 
  11. Or how, from out the water, Fraech 
  12. To Finnabar restored her ring. 
  13. And though, in greater tales, they chose 
  14. Speech mixed with song, men's hearts to sway, 
  15. Such themes as these they told in prose, 
  16. Like speakers at the festivals to-day. 
  17. To men who spoke the Irish tongue 
  18. That form of prose was pleasing well. 
  19. While other lands in ballads sung 
  20. Such tales as these have loved to tell: 
  1. So we, who now in English dress 
  2. These Irish tales would fain rehearse. 
  3. And seek their spirit to express, 
  4. Have set them down in ballad verse; 
  5. And, though to Celts the form be strange. 
  6. Seek not too much the change to blame; 
  7. ' Tts but the form alone we change ; 
  8. The sense, the spirit rest the same.