North Sardinian Azari/Abealzu-Filigosa Culture Observatories (3200 -2400 BCE)

High place alter at Monte d'Accoddi Sardinia
View of the partly reconstructed high place. The top layer on the left side of this platform has been reconstructed while the bottom layer has only been reconstructed on the right. This site is located on the plains in the northwest corner of Sardinia.  It was started at about the same time as Stonehenge in Britain. (The first stage of Stonehenge and Bluehenge down at the Avon river were built around 3,100 BCE)
Map of northern Sardinia showing Monte d'Accoddi
Topographic map of Ottava river valley showing Monte d'Accoddi
Topographic map showing the high place of D'Accoddi  located on a bluff 500 feet away and 100 feet above the small Ottava river valley where it widens as it exits the highlands. Along this river exist about 30 other ancient stone constructions as it traverses the coastal plain.
The map shows: 1. Nuragheddu of Li Pedriazzi; 2. Subterranean Necropolis Su Crucifissu Mannu; 3.Subterranean Necropolis Li Lioni; 4. Nuraghe La Camusina; 5. Nuraghe La Luzzana of Chercu; 6. Nuraghe Figga; 7. Nuraghe Cherchi; 8. Villa romana Ponte Giogante; 9. Nuraghe Ferro; 10. Subterranean Necropolis Monte d’Accoddi; 11. Monte d’Accoddi, prehistoric settlement; 12. Menhir Monted’Accoddi; 13. Hypogeum of Marinaru; 14. Subterranean Necropolis of Ponte Secco; 15. Menhir Frades Muros; 16. Dolmen Frades Muros; 17. Subterranean Necropolis Su Jaiu; 18. Subterranean Necropolis Sant’Ambrogio; 19. Subterranean Necropolis of Spina Santa. (from Delfino 2000)

Observatory Ritual Center of Monte d'Accoddi

(February, 2024) The Azaru sub-culture of north Sardinia was the last Neolithic Farmer (Druid) culture before the Indo-Europeans started raiding their shores.  Their villages had no walls and weapons in the tombs are rare. This indicates that Ozieri civilization, like all Druid civilizations, was centered around ancestral lineages instead of warlike chiefs as found in  Indo-European civilizations

Their culture shows an increase in material goods compared to past. They also built this night sky observatory center to better determine planting times based upon star rising positions along the horizon. Both of these indicate that more producing and more intensive farming technologies from the newly mixing Druid and Indo-European cultures to the east were arriving on the island.

Archaeological excavations have identified some 200 Ozieri settlements, located both in plain and mountain areas, but with a preference for low ridges with farms in the valleys. Their economy was a mix of hunting and gathering along with animal husbandry and agriculture. Their settlements consisted of small stone huts, with a circular (rarely rectangular) walls supporting a stick framed roof probably using thatch.

This platform has a base of 27 m by 27 m and it probably reached a height of 5.5 m. It culminated in a platform of about 12.5 m by 7.2 m, accessible via a ramp. No chambers or entrances to the mound have been found, 

One settlement near Sestu, consisted of 60 huts. Another, near Mogoro included 267 huts with pavements composed of limestone slabs, basalt cobbles or clay. Su Coddu, the largest known settlement, consisted of more complex structures and multiple room dwellings. It is located near Selargius and it has been partially built over by modern development limiting the present understanding of its size. The finding of unique tools and objects in individual huts, and early evidence of metal-working, suggests the Ozieri culture was well organized and specialized.

 The tombs consisted of rock-cut hypogeous structures that later became known as domus de janas, which were built underground or in rock faces, with the largest example being the Necropolis of Anghelu Ruju. Some tombs, of more monumental appearance, belonged perhaps to chiefs, in the fashion of those in Crete. The Ozieri burial practices differ from what is found in the region of Gallura (as a feature of the contemporaneous Arzachena culture), where the dead were interred in Megalithic circles. 

The pottery was decorated in spiral similar to that found at Newgrange, Ireland. Their pottery techniques seem to have been imported from the Cyclades and Crete. The Ozieri culture appears to have been much involved in the obsidian trade due to rich deposits on the island.  


Dyson, Stephen L.; Rowland, Robert J. (2007). Archaeology and History in Sardinia from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages. University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. pp. 35–41. Online at:
Delfino, Carlo (editor) (2000) Prehistoric Altar of Monte D'Accoddi. Online at:
Early dolmen in Sardinia


This stone slab has shallow pits suggesting this was used as an altar.  This pits held loose grains or liquids and may even have functioned as a pestle to prepare these offerings. This sorts of pits are first seen in a Natufian Cave (13,000-9,500 BCE) in Israel which is part of the homeland of these Neolithic Farmers.
Earliest Building Stage of Monte d'Accoddi

Earliest Building Stage of Monte d'Accoddi

(February 24, 2024) The archaeologists excavating the site think the top of the earliest platform consisted of an open walled temple.  If it was truly an observatory it would have had bumps or scratches in the plaster showing the star rise positions of important seasonal stars.
The lower walls were plastered and its floor painted red. Hence it was called the "red temple." Red was the correspondence color to life. The preserved wall height is shown in the drawing with an imagined wooden roof.
Tree-ring corrected carbon 14 dating of top organic remains dates the temple it to about 3200-2900 BC This places it in the local Ozieri culture.
Later Second Building Stage of Monte d'Accoddi

Later Second Building Stage of Monte d'Accoddi

The more recent altar was built several centuries after the first and belongs to the local copper using Abealzu-Filigosa culture dating to 2700-2400 BCE.
Altar Drawings Monte d'Accoddi

Altar Drawings Monte d'Accoddi

Right side drawings (A) show the large altar and its pits. This altar had a associated underground space apparently robbed in the past which would have held sacred objects of power. 
The top left side drawing (C) shows the smaller and earlier altar found adjacent to the right side of the ramp and associated with the earliest stage of construction. It is made out of trachyte, a light colored, fine-grained igneous rock. 
The bottom right side drawing (B) shows the unique side pit of the large altar which exited through the side. Fluids poured into the top would have poured out the side into a pottery vessel of some type.

View of Platform Before Reconstruction Looking SW Towards the Winter Setting Sun

This photo shows the excavated support buildings on the left.  The ramp is offset from center suggesting it was aimed at some feature on the horizon to mark the winter solstice (Delfino 2000)

Bronze Warrior Figures from Sardinia (2800 BCE)

Despite the villages not have wall northern Sardinian starts to see warrior figurines made of copper. Most carry a club, some have a sword, and some have a a bow.  Either, the island's culture was be changing to defend itself against Indo-European raiders or it was starting to exploit its newly exploited copper resources to trade these to the mainland Indo-Europeans.
On display at the National Archaeological Museum Cagliari of
Photo by Angel M. Felicisimo at:

The Nuragic Civilization of Bronze Age Sardinia by Dan Davis

An excellent overview of ancient Sardinian history by Dan Davis. Latest genetic information indicates the native Neolithic famer Sardinians repulsed the Indo-European invaders but at the cost of their culture becoming much more militant.