Jerusalem Tomb Text (~500 CE)

(April 19, 2023) This shows letter style transition from Jewish-Roman war era to medieval Hebrew style which are familiar to most people. Amazingly, it is still in Akkadian which by this time must have been the near eastern equivalent of Latin today.

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Tomb Location in Jerusalem Circled at Lower Right

Inscription Located Above Tomb Doorway

This inscription was discovered by Robert Cornuke and Ronald Matson in 2019.

Letter assignments by Olmsted. These really must be considered preliminary. We really need a few more texts from this era to gain more certainty in regards to letter assignments.

Map of the tomb where the inscription was found at the entrance of chamber 4.

Alphabetic Akkadian Translation

(April 19, 2023)  Hu is the sun god who represents the life network through which fertility fluids (filtrate) flows to trigger Yahu to manifest life on earth. Inhibiting this flow tends to prevent the revelation of the invisible (platonic) life forms.

Translation in Akkadian

(Read right to left. Capital letters on seal. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Verb is italic bold)  

(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English. 

Previous Hebrew Translation Attempt 


Garfinkel, I., Cornuke, R., Matson, R., Misgav, H. (2022) A Late Second temple Inscription from a Cave Complex at Abraham's House, Mount of Olives in Jerusalem: Preliminary Publication. Maarv 26.1-2: 133-143. Online at: