Iberian Runestone Background

A wonderful graph showing the genetic flows into the Iberian Peninsula. The Akkadian speaking Neolithic farmers overwhelmed the local hunter gatherers around 5,500 BCE. Then around 2000 BCE the Indo-European speakers partly replaced the Neolithic farmers (Olalde, and all 2019). This replacement and intimate trade route connections with central Europe led to the formation of Celtic culture in Iberia.

Iberian Genetic Summary

(September 6, 2023) Celtic Iberian culture is a mix of Druid and Indo-European cultures/languages. The Neolithic people arrived around 5500 BCE and mostly settled near the coast although a few examples have been found inland. (Molina-Almansa, and all 2023)


Molina-Almansa, Antonio, and all (Sept 2023) Early Neolithic human remains from Galería del Sílex in Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain. Quaternary Science Reviews. Volume 315, 1, 108256. Online at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quascirev.2023.108256
Olalde, and all (2019) The genomic history of the Iberian Peninsula over the past 8000 years. Science 363, 1230–1234. Online at: https://reich.hms.harvard.edu/sites/reich.hms.harvard.edu/files/inline-files/2019_Olalde_Science_IberiaTransect_0.pdf
Digital tracing of part of the climbing scene at Gómez Ravine; (B) Comparison between the stirrup ladder depicted (1) and a sketch of a stirrup ladder used in current alpine climbing (2) (after original by Estado Mayor de la Defensa 1985). 

Using Rope Ladders To Get Honey

(Sept 6, 2023) Neolithic people on the eastern coast of Iberia made rope ladders to toss up a tree so they could climb and get honey according to rock art found in cliff walled ravines.


Manuel Bea, Dídac Roman, and Inés Domingo (June 8, 2023). Hanging over the Void. Uses of Long Ropes and Climbing Rope Ladders in Prehistory as Illustrated in Levantine Rock Art. Cambridge University Press. Online at: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0959774323000173

Modern Districts of Portugal

The area around Montemor-o-Novo just west of Evora city has a cluster of dolmens,

Megaliths of Portugal online at: https://www.izi.travel/en/d9c5-megalithic-tour/en#/browse/6a604b2b-6697-45e9-9bd9-49e057dc5b8a/en

 Traditional Districts of Portugal

Items found at Perdigoes. Notice the owl eyes on the right item. Photo from: https://perdigoes.org/en/2021/03/02/elements-from-perdigoes-on-display-at-the-national-archaeology-museum/

Neolithic Ritual Complex of Perdigões, Portugal 3400 - 2000 BC

(August 31, 2023) This Neolithic site survived until the arrival of the Indo-European invaders. It had a large Wooden Henge at its center. It has a maximum diameter of about 20 meters delineated by two small concentric ditches (the exterior one having wedges and fittings for big poles and corresponding to a palisade. Inside of this outer ring were several concentric rows of large posts and at least two more concentric palisades.

This structure is still being excavated and extends below other contexts and structures. It is dated to the first half of the 3rd millennium BC.

The Perdigões Archaeological Complex is located  1 km north of the city of  Reguengos de Monsaraz, district of Évora, Portugal. It has a museum.


Research site at: https://perdigoes.org/en/

Museum site: https://perdigoes.org/en/museu/

Some Steles (No Text) Found at Perdigões, Portugal

Museum Model of Central Excavation Area at Perdigões, Portugal

Tartessian Heads

(September 1, 2023) Tartessos culture was a civilization which existed in Iberia prior to the invasion of the Carthaginians or Romans. This article claims these are the first images of people discovered from the Tartessian culture.

"Tartessian" was the name that was attributed by the ancient Greeks to this civilization. It covered the regions of Andalusia, in Spain, and the Baixo Alentejo and Algarve, in Portugal. 



Estela de (Stone of) Mesas de Castelinho. Photo by Ángel M. Felicísimo. Found in Almodôvar, Portugal. Now at Museu da Escrita do Sudoeste, Almodôvar.  (Museum of Writing of the Southwest, Almodovar, Portugal). Tt is translated here on this site.

Photography of Ángel M. Felicísimo

(August 15, 2023) Many stele photos in this section are from Ángel M. Felicísimo's Flickr site. So lots of thanks to Ángel M. Felicísimo for his photography skill and for putting his photos under a creative commons license.  A translation of his site introduction is as follows: 

My name is Ángel M. Felicísimo and I am a professor at the University Center of Mérida, University of Extremadura (Mérida, Spain). I am especially interested in documentary photography related to history, art, archaeology and museums. Here you can find a few thousand photographs so I recommend entering the Albums tab to find them organized by themes. My academic information can be viewed on ResearchGate, www.researchgate.net/profile/Angel_Felicisimo/, Academia.edu, unex.academia.edu/AngelMFelicisimo, or Google Scholar, scholar.google.com/citations?user=UbSXhpgAAAAJ&hl=es


Now at the National Museum of Roman Art in MERIDA, Spain. Stock No.: CE28630. Online at: https://www.culturaydeporte.gob.es/mnromano/colecciones/nuestras-colecciones/seleccion-piezas/tintinabullum.html

Roman Era Protective Bell Having Latin Text "TYDIDES" (150 CE) Found in Spain

(August 18, 2023) This is a bell,  called in Roman culture a Tintinabullum, was used in rituals and as a protective amulet for children. These have apparently been found in trash deposits and children's graves.

Greek has the word Tydéas and Latin has Tydeus. Both mean "divinity" from Akkadian "Di'u" or Indo-European "deus" (devis) meaning "divine" and the Indo-European word modifier "ty" which converts an adjective to a noun (like "safe" to "safety" in English). 

The "ides" word ending in Latin indicates a group or family. So Tydides means "divine ones" or "divine one."