Al Ukhdud Near Najran in Saudi Arabia

Picture of a well preserved Musnad inscription from its first finding report dated February 15, 2023 at MOC Heritage Site on X (Twitter). It was uncovered at an archaeological excavation at Al Ukhdud in Saudi Arabia. 

Al Ukhdud Wall Text

(March 16, 2024) The term "Musnad" originated in early Islamic times to describe inscriptions written in pre-Arabic characters. 

The inscription is large measuring seven-and-a-half feet long and one-and-a-half feet wide. It is the longest of its kind ever discovered at the site. 


MOC Heritage Site on X (Twitter):
Report in English at Art News:

Short 2008 overview on the state of research into the emergence of Arabic.

Red bull head found at the same site. Red is the color of life while a bull represented the chaotic rainstorm form of the sun god Hu. From MOC Heritage Site on X (Twitter).


Arabic, Greek and Syriac scripts from Church of St. Sergius, Zabad, vicinity of Aleppo, early 6th century, original in basalt. Now at the Royal Museum of Art and History in Brussels, Belgium. Photo from: