Norse Non-Archaeological Source Texts (1200-1400)

A great resource for all Nordic/Germanic bardic material is at:
Here you will find summaries and comparisons of various translations. 
The recommended version of the Poetic Edda by others on the internet is Carrolyn Larrington’s revised edition (2014) which contains extensive notes, lots of translated material, and is written in plain English.
Out in 2023 is a Creative Common's edition of the Poetic Edda by Edward Pettit! It can be found here:

European Bardic Culture 1200-1350 CE

(July 2, 2023) Much of Western culture was created by court bards of late medieval times. These bards were looking for good stories with compelling, often magical, characters not unlike Hollywood today. They used complex language forms and often had deeper meanings buried within superficially epic romance and adventure stories. Part of these deeper meanings was the used of Akkadian phrases for the names of their characters. These would be like using Latin derived phrases for names today. Druid Akkadian by then was a dead language used mainly by Druid priests surviving in the north to write their religious rune texts. (Just like Latin continued to be used by the Catholic church into the 1960's)

Some of these names seem to have been epithets for ancient Druid deities and concepts given the "Hollywood" treatment while others like dwarf names seem to have been invented by the bards.

The most popular stories were commissioned by wealthy nobles to be written down on vellum in the local native language. This makes these stories something special because prior to this time, most writing in Europe was by and for trade and temple (Christian and Druid). More general writing for the public only began after the European economic reordering after the Black Death of 1350. This increasing demand from a more literate, free and prosperous urban population eventually led to the invention of the printing press and cheap paper in 1450.

 Bards had great respect among the Welsh but were generally held in contempt by the Scots who considered them itinerant troublemakers. Ironically, they were subsequently idealized by the early Scottish novelist and poet Sir Walter Scott (1771 – 1832) as being the first modern poets and singer. Scott is best known for his novel Ivanhoe (1820). Poetic use of the word in English is from Greek bardos, Latin bardus, both from Gaulish.

When the standard etymology of a word is not very good one needs to look for an Akkadian source. Such is the case for the word "Bard." It probably derives from the Akkadian phrase BaRu.Du meaning or "Seer of life."

Video by Old Norse experts Jackson Crawford and Haukur Þorgeirsson (Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies) as they discuss the Grágás. (1380-1400)
Notice all these texts use dots to separate sentences and phrases just like the earlier Druid Akkadian Rune Texts. These dots became the sentence ending periods used in English.
Grágás as a native Icelandic word means "Gray Goose." Several unsatisfactory explanations have been provided as for why this name was give to a book of law codes:
  1.  The laws were written with a goose quill
  2.  The laws were bound in goose skin
  3.  The age of the laws—it was then believed that geese lived longer than other birds.

In fact this is a Druid Akkadian phrase meaning "Guide of Blessings" from GeRu meaning "guide" and GaSu meaning "blessing." As a reaction against Latin the Icelanders were reaching back to their ancestral Druidic past for legitimacy.

Icelandic Gragas (Gray Bindings/Goose) Law Compendium (1380-1400) Based On Earlier Sources (1310-1330)

(June 29, 2023) The Gragas was written between 1380 and 1400 for the purpose of reconciling Icelandic and Danish law using the native language (not Latin). Consequently, it can be dated somewhat independently of letter style. As such this should be considered as a dating anchor for all the other Icelandic texts.

The  Grágás never actually existed in one complete volume during medieval times. The Grágás does not contain a unified body of law. Instead, the Grágás was derived from two smaller, fragmentary volumes known as the Konungsbók (Copenhagen, Royal Library, GKS 1157 fol), apparently written around 1310, and Staðarhólsbók (Reykjavík, Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies, AM 334 fol), apparently written in 1330. Sometimes the Konungsbók and Staðarhólsbók present different information, sometimes complementary information, and sometimes contradictory information. The ornate detail and appearance of the volumes suggests that they were created for a wealthy, literate man, though scholars cannot be certain. 

Iceland had always been nominally ruled by the Norwegian king but in reality that control was very loose. Since its founding Iceland had developed its own law code and its Althing (Parliament) continued to be held at Thingvellir which was mostly used as a court of justice. Most of the "royal" officials who became island chieftains were Icelanders. In 1380 the Norwegian monarchy entered into a union with the Danish crown, but that change did not affect Iceland’s status within the realm as a personal skattland (“tax land”) of the crown but it did lead to these new law codes.

This was also a time of increased European interest in Iceland due to its fishing industry. After the Icelandic Black Death of 1404 killed off many of the native Icelandic fishermen, the English merchants out of Bergen Norway were able to begin fishing around Iceland. The Danish crown repeatedly tried to stop the resulting English trade in Iceland but it lacked the naval power with which to defend its remote possession.


Video by Old Norse experts Jackson Crawford and Haukur Þorgeirsson (Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies) as they discuss the early  "Codex Regius" version of the Prose Edda dating to between 1300 and 1350.  This is not to be confused with The Codex Regius source compilation of the top section.
At least five hypotheses (all false) have been suggested for the origins of the word "Edda:"
  1. It means "great-grandmother" appearing in the Eddic poem Rígsþula.
  2.  It derives from Old Norse óðr, "poetry".
  3.  It derives from the Icelandic place name Oddi, site of the church and school where students, including Snorri Sturluson, were educated. (Proposed in 1895 by Eiríkr Magnússon)  
  4. It derives from Snorri Sturluson's treatise on poetry from the Latin edo, "I compose (poetry)", by analogy with kredda, "superstition", from Latin credo, "creed"—is now widely accepted, although this acceptance might stem from its agreement with modern usage rather than historical accuracy.
  5. Edda would be an appropriate 'pet name' of æðr (pronounced as [æ:ðr] 'eider duck'. Then, Edda meant 'little eider duck' (an analog of Grágás).

Edda actually means "Enlighener" in Druid Akkadian. It comes from the Druid Akkadian word EDu meaning "Enlighten" and the Akkadian -A word ending which indicates a noun is the actor in a sentence (indicated in Indo-European languages by -er). This word is also the source of the word "Educate" in English. It is also the source of the words for "poetry" in Old Norse and Latin.


Edda source hypotheses from:

Prose Edda - A Poet's Handbook (1300-1350 CE)

(July 6, 2023) The Icelandic chiefs apparently were wealthy enough from 1200 onwards due to the fish trade to hold courtly entertainments just like the royal courts on the European mainland. The Prose Edda was written by as a handbook for court poets to aid in their understanding of Icelandic mythology. Seven manuscripts of the Prose Edda have survived into the present day: Six copies from the medieval period and another dating to the 1600s. No one manuscript is complete and each has variations. In addition to three fragments, the four main manuscripts are in the Codex Regius, Codex Wormianus, Codex Trajectinus, and the Codex Upsaliensis. The name Snorri Sturluson has been the author associated with this text but that may or may not be true because he was a famous Icelandic personage from the 1200's. Often texts have been assigned to past famous people when the author is actually unknown.

The Prose Edda consists of four sections: 


This section presents Germanic/Nordic gods as deified humans (a personification known as euhemerization in scholarly circles). Authorship of this section remains particularly unclear—the Prose Edda prologue may have been an addition to an earlier form of the text by an unknown author.


This text consists of a dialogue between three deity-like entities and Gylfi, a legendary king, Gylfaginning focuses on providing information derived from a genre of poetry known as Eddic poetry (essentially, poems in the style of those found in the Poetic Edda). The section includes excerpts from numerous Eddic poems known to us in extended form as well as excerpts from several Eddic poems now otherwise lost (such as Heimdalargaldr). (approximately 20,000 words) 

The word "Gylfaginning" is from Akkadian G.IL.W.G.N with Indo-European -ING ending. It means "Energy.High-Powers.Fate-Curse.Energy.Revealings" or in other words "High Energy's Curses Revealed." In Middle English (1200 CE), the word GIN was used to refer to diabolical machines, especially for war and torture (probably from Akkadian G.N meaning "energy revealer"). It became the core word of "engine." It derives from Old French meaning "machine, device, scheme," Middle English had adjective ginful meaning ingenious, crafty; guileful, treacherous" (c. 1300). 


This section is a dialogue between the jǫtunn (builder) Ægir (Akkadiaan AG with Indo-European -R ending meaning "anger") and the courtly-poet (skald) and/or deity Bragi (Akkadian BR.G meaning " Seer of energy"). It begins much like Gylfaginning before turning into numerous lists of epithets and their meanings with excerpts from skaldic poetry. Like the book’s prologue, Skáldskaparmál may have been modified or expanded upon by an unknown author (or unknown authors), and like Gylfaginning, it contains many items unrecorded elsewhere.

The word "Skáldskaparmál" is a compound word composed of Skald and Skaparmal. Skald is Akkadian SK.LD  meaning "Weaving.Rowed-Things." or in other words "Weaving Texts," that is "Poetry." Texts like farm fields and cloth had rows. Skaparmal is Akkadian SK.PR.ML meaning "weaving.effort.counterbalance" or in other words "Balanced Writing." When combined these word form the title: "Balanced Writing For Poems."

Epithets are called heiti in Old Norse which comes from Akkadian word ḪṬ meaning "joinings." A joining  example for the word "sword" is mækir  which is Akkadian MK with Indo-European -R meaning "chastiser." Epithet phrases are called "kennings" for "sword"called "kennings" which comes from Akkadian KN meaning "tinkerings" and single word (the Indo-European word  is sverð). A kenning example for "sword" is grand hlífar "bane of shield" and ben-fúrr "wound-fire"  .  (approximately 50,000 words)


This section discusses the technical aspects of how to compose courtly poetry (approximately 20,000 words). 

The word "Háttatal" comes from Akkadian ḪT.TT.TL meaning "Nursing.Tits.Mounded-One." where "Mounded-One" and as a pregnant woman is an epithet for Asher, the life manifestation goddess. This seems to be a phrase analogous to "getting to the heart of the matter." 

The Codex Regius. Photo from wikimedia commons at
The Codex Regius contains these texts with their titles in Druid Akkadian. The most famous entry is the Völuspá which is found in this Icelandic Codex Regius manuscript and in Haukr Erlendsson 's Hauksbók Codex. Additionally, many of its stanzas are quoted or paraphrased in the Prose Edda:  
  1. Völuspá (Walu/Alu's Community)
  2. Hávamál (Counterbalancing Hard-Times)
  3. Vafþrúðnismál (Counterbalancing the Time Curses from Su)
  4. Grímnismál (Counterbalancing the Aiding of Su)
  5. Skírnismál  (Counterbalancing Su's Reduction of the Distant-One's)
  6. Hárbarðsljóð  (Liver Nourishing for Channeling Selu's Omens)
  7. Hymiskviða  (Respecting Air-power's Involvement Due To Thu)
  8. Lokasenna (Loki's Phallus Revealed)
  9. Þrymskviða  (Forms Not Affected by Fertility-Fluids being Woven by Thu)
  10. Völundarkviða  (Alu Throwing-Off the Raking by Thu)
  11. Alvíssmál  (Counterbalancing Alu's Bindings)
  12. Helgakviða Hundingsbana I (Healing Energy's Involvement By Thu Hounding the Path)
  13. Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar (Healing Energy's Involvement For Respecting Shepherd's Channeling Wand)
  14. Helgakviða Hundingsbana II  (Healing Energy's Involvement For Thu Hounding the Path)
  15. Frá Dauða Sinfjötla  (For Manifestations By Thu's Phallus Which Curses Asher)
  16. Grípisspá (Aid Opening For Community)
  17. Reginsmál  (Counterbalancing False Astrological-powers)
  18. Fáfnismál  (Countering the Faf of the Astrological-Powers)
  19. Sigrdrífumál (Counterbalancing Su's Aid Manifestations from Emotion-Magic-Crafters)
  20. The Great Lacuna (A lacuna, not a full text)
  21. Brot af Sigurðarkviðu ('Seer of Astrology-Magic'  'and'  'Su's Aid to Thu for Thu's Raking')
  22. Guðrúnarkviða I  (Energy's Written-Fate Revealed for Raking By Thu)
  23. Sigurðarkviða hin skamma  '(Su's Aid to Thu for Thu's Raking'  'for Intimidating'  'Weaving the Waters')
  24. Helreið Brynhildar  ('Hu's Diversion of Life-Channels'  'Seer of Su's Healing of Life-Manifestations'.)
  25. Dráp Niflunga  'Revealing Love's Coast'  'Abandoned Imager Energy')
  26. Guðrúnarkviða II (Energy's Written-Fate Revealed for Raking By Thu)
  27. Guðrúnarkviða III (Energy's Written-Fate Revealed for Raking By Thu)
  28. Oddrúnargrátr (Observer of Form Revelations by False Settings.)
  29. Atlakviða  (That.Mound-Power.Involvement.By.Thu)
  30. Atlamál  (That.Mound-Power.Conterbalancing)
  31. Guðrúnarhvöt  (Energy's Writing-Fate Revelations Anointed by Ayu)
  32. Hamðismál (Counterbalancing the Paralysis of Thu By Su. )

Codex Regius Compendium (1300-1350)

(July 7, 2023) This source book got its name due to being stored in the Danish royal archives. In Icelandic it is called the Konungsbók. The title is in Latin which translates to English as "Royal Book."

This book only entered history in 1643 when it came into the possession of Bishop Brynjólfur Sveinsson. At the time the book consisted of 45 pages written on long lasting vellum. It was missing 8 pages but some of these lost poems were preserved in prose form in the Völsunga saga. In 1662 Sveinsson sent the manuscript to King Frederik III of Denmark. It remained in the Royal Library in Copenhagen until 1971, when it became one of the first documents of a vast body of Icelandic material returned to Iceland. 

Vellum can last a long time if kept out of the weather. Original copies of the Magna Carta, signed more than 800 years ago on vellum still exist. Yet British laws only started to be written down on vellum after 1497. Prior to the European economic reordering after the Black death writing was generally only done for official temple and trade purposes. The exception were occasional commissions by various nobles to famous courtly bards to write down their better stories so they could be read even when the bard was not around.

After the Black Death, a more prosperous, more free, and more literate urban public increased the demand for books and this increase in demand soon lead to the creation of the printing press in 1450.

Significantly, Iceland was spared the Black Death until the 1400's when it  was struck twice. The first plague was in 1402–1404 CE and is estimated to have killed more than half of the Icelandic population. Data from the mid-15th century suggest that 40 years after this plague some 20% of farms were still deserted. A second epidemic came in 1494–1495 CE by which time the population had probably recovered from the earlier disaster. The mortality rate of the second plague was comparable in scale with the first plague. However, it killed less than one-half of the total Icelandic population because it did not reach the Vestfjord region where some 10% of the population then lived.

Regius Manuscript Text Title Etymologies

A common word used in this titles is "filling" which in Akkadian has the broad sense of compensating for some loss just like a tooth filling is compensating for lost tooth material.

  1. Völuspá: Akkadian WL.SP meaning "Walu/Alu's.Community. " This is the story about the creation of the community of powers, their coming end, and subsequent rebirth
  2. Hávamál: Akkadian ḪW.ML meaning "Howling.Counterbalancing."  or in other words "Counterbalancing Hard-Times." This is advice for proper conduct and wisdom. 
  3. Vafþrúðnismál: Akkadian Wa.WD.ṬN.S.ML meaning "Curse.Crafting.Grinding.Su.Counterbalancing" or in other words "Counterbalancing  the Time Curses from Su" This is a conversation between Odin (meaning "Those grinder powers") and Frigg (meaning  "Dawn's bright moon energy.") about Norse cosmogony
  4. Grímnismál: Akkadian GR.MN.S.ML meaning "Aid.Support.Su.Counterbalancing" or in other words "Counterbalancing the Aiding of Su." This is a poem describing the divine worlds and Odin's (Su's grinding powers) many guises. The third and last part of the poem is also prose, a brief description the demise of a king called Geirröth, his son's ascension, and Odin's disappearance.  
  5. Skírnismál: Akkadian S.KR.NS.ML meaning "Su.Reduction.Distant-Ones.Counterbalance" or in other words "Counterbalancing Su's Reduction of the Distant-One's." The "distant ones" are the heavenly bodies defining fate." This is a tale about Freyr (Sun of the life power class) seducing a beautiful girl called Gerðr (meaning "G.ṬR or "energy's writing" which is an epithet for fate).
  6. Hárbarðsljóð: Akkadian ḪR.B.RṬ.SL.IṬ  meaning "Liver.Nourishment.Channel.Selu.Omen" or in other words "Liver Nourishing for Channeling Selu's Omens." This is a poem in which the ferryman Hárbarðr (ḪR.BR.ṬR- Liver.Seer. Writer "Liver's Seer of Fate") and the god Thor compete in a flyting or verbal contest with one other. 
  7. Hymiskviða: Akkadian ḪY.MS.K.U.Ṭ meaning "Respect.Air's.Involvment.By.Thu" or in other words "Respecting Air-power's Involvement Due To Thu. This text contains fragments of a number of myths thrown together with very little structure. The scenes follow each other in a very rough logical order. Some of the allusions are not known from other sources and it contains unusually many epithet phrases (kennings). 
  8. Lokasenna: Akkadian LK.SN.N meaning Loki.Rod.Revealed or in other words "Loki's Phallus Revealed." This is a story about how Loki insults the other deities and ends up paying the price.
  9. Þrymskviða: Akkadian DR.Y.M.SK.U.Ṭ meaning "Forms.Not-Affected.Fertility-Fluid.Weaving.Due-to.Thu." or in other words "Forms Not Affected by Fertility-Fluids being Woven by Thu." This story describes how the builder Þrym steals Mjǫllnir, the hammer of Thor, and demands marriage to the goddess Freyja if he returns the hammer. Freyja, of course, wants nothing to do with Þrym, so Thor disguises himself and presents himself to Þrym as Freyja. The story’s humour derives largely from the bride’s astonishing behaviour at the wedding feast, where “she” eats an entire ox and eight salmon and drinks three vessels of mead.
  10. Völundarkviða: Akkadian UL.ND.RK.U.Ṭ meaning "Walu.thrown-off.raking.Due-To.Thu" or in other words "Alu Throwing-Off the Raking by Thu." This story is an adventure story in which artisan Völundr (Alu's Thrower") is captured by Níðuðr, a petty-king of Närke (currently in Sweden), and Vǫlundr's brutal revenge and escape
  11. Alvíssmál: Akkadian AL.US.ML meaning "Alu.Binding.Counterbalance" or in other words "Counterbalancing Alu's Bindings." This story is about the dwarf Alvis (AL.US meaning "Alu's binding") who comes to fetch his bride-to-be, Thrud (Akkadian DR.D meaning "forms.manifested," a daughter of Thor. But Thor does not want to lose his daughter so Thor out-wits him. In the end, they have spoken for so long that Alvis is caught out in the sun and turns to stone.
  12. Helgakviða Hundingsbana 1: Akkadian  ḪL.G.K.U.Ṭ meaning "Heal.Energy.Involve.Due-To.Thu or in other words "Healing Energy's Involvement For Thu."  "Hundingsbana is Indo-European for "Hounding the Path" like a dog following a scented trail. Together these make the title "Healing Energy's Involvement For Thu Hounding the Path." Yet the word "ban" is similar to "bane" meaning "death" so the hero in the story is also called that. These 3 stories are a rather disjointed collection of similar romantic adventures.
  13. Helgakviða Hjörvarðssonar: Akkadian ḪY.RW.RṬ.SN with Indo-European -R ending meaning "Respect.shepherd.Channel.Rod" or in other word "Respecter of Shepherd's Channeling Wand." where "shepherds" is an epithet for "emotion magic crafters" which makes the "rod" here a wand which has the purpose of directing or channeling emotion-magic energy. Together these make the title "Healing Energy's Involvement By Respecting of the Shepherd's Channeling Wand.
  14. Helgakviða Hundingsbana 2: (Same as 12)
  15. Frá Dauða Sinfjötla: Indo-European meaning "From" or "For." Akkadian D.U.Ṭ meaning Forming-Life.By.Thu." Akkadian SN.UY.TL meaning Rod.Fate-Curse.Mounded-One" or in other words "Rod Cursing Asher." Putting them together yields: "From Manifestations By Thu's Phallus Which Curses Asher." Asher is the life manifestation goddess. This story describes the death of Sinfjötli (Phallus Which Curses Asher) who is the son of Sigmundr (S.G.M.ND meaning "Su''s.Energy.Fertility-Fluid.Thow-Away" or "Su's Energy for Thowing-Away Fertility-Fluids)  Sinfjötli dies when trickery by Sigmund overcomes certain magical wards. Thu is not really a life-power but is a connective motion power which brings astrologically defined fate to earth. This story seems to be about how fate finds a way to overcome everything.  This story  connects the Helgakviða Hundingsbana II and Grípisspá. 
  16. Grípisspá: Akkadian GR.P.SP meaning "Aid. Open. Community" or in other words "Aid Opening For Community." This is a story in which Sigurd (Akkadian S.GR.D meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations" predicts the future of his uncle, Grípir (Akkadian GR.P with Indo-European -R meaning "Aid.Opener." The poem is well preserved and coherent.  Because of that It is thought to be among the youngest poems of the Codex Regius,
  17. Reginsmál: Akkadian RG.NS.ML meaning "False.Distant-Ones.Counterbalancing" or in other words "Counterbalancing False Astrological-powers." where "Distant-Ones" is an epithet for astrological-powers. This text relates Loki's dealings with Andvari. (Akkadian AN.DW with Indo-European -R meaning "Considerations.Convulsions." Interpolated with prose passages, the poem moves on to Sigurd's relationship with Reginn (Akkadian RG.N meaning "Falseness.Revealer" and the advice given to him by Odin.
  18. Fáfnismál: Akkadian WA.Wu.N.S.ML meaning "Fate-Curse.Crimping.Revelation.Su.Counterbalance" or in other words "Counterbalancing the Crimping Fate-Curses Revealed by Su." "Crimping" is a word used to describe the restriction of the life channels/threads. This section is actually unnamed in the Poetic Edda. This title was given to it by European scholars based on its content. It is similar to the Reginsmál. The first part of the poem is a dialogue between Sigurd (Akkadian S.GR.D meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations") and Fáfnir (WA.W.N with Indo-European -R meaning "Crimping Fate-Curse Revealer." The poem moves on to Sigurd's slaying of Fáfnir, dealings with Reginn and claiming of the gold hoard. 
  19. Sigrdrífumál: Akkadin S.GR.D.RW.ML meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations.Shepherd.Counterbalancing or in other words "Counterbalancing Su's Aid Manifestations from Emotion-Magic-Crafters." This story follows Fáfnismál without interruption, and it relates the meeting of Sigurðr with the valkyrie Brynhildr, (Akkadian BR.IN.ḪL.D with Indo-European -R meaning Seer.Moon-Eye.Healer.Manifester" or in other words "Seer of Su's Healing for Life-Manifestations" here identified as Sigrdrífa (Akkadian S.GR.D.RW meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations.Shepherd or in other words Emotion-Magic-Crafter of Su's Aid for Life-Manifestations). Its content consists mostly of verses concerned with runic magic and general wisdom literature, presented as advice given by Sigrdrífa to Sigurd (Akkadian S.GR.D meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations"). 
  20. The Great Lacuna:  What survives here is just a text fragment
  21. Brot af Sigurðarkviðu: Akkadian BR.T meaning "Seer.Astrology-Magic." Akkadian S.GR.Ṭ.RK.U.Ṭ meaning "Su.Aid.Thu.Raking.By.Thu" or in other words "Su's Aid to Thu for Thu's Raking."  Combined this means: "Seer of Astrology-magic and Su's Aid to Thu for Thu's Raking." All that remains of this text is 22 stanzas of a much longer text which seems to have combined two smaller poems. one of which is Sigurðarkviða hin skamma (entry 22)
  22. Guðrúnarkviða 1: Akkadian G.ṬR.NR.K.U.Ṭ meaning  "Energy.Writing.Revealed.Raking.By.Thu" or in other words "Energy's Written-Fate Revealed for Raking By Thu. In this text Gudrun (Akkadian G.DR.N meaning "Energy.Forms.Revealed"  or in other words "Energy for Form Revelations" finds her dead husband Sigurd (Akkadian S.GR.D meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations." In this first text Gudrun cries and laments her husband with beautiful imagery. 
  23. Sigurðarkviða hin skamma: Akkadian S.GR.Ṭ.RK.U.Ṭ meaning "Su.Aid.Thu.Raking.By.Thu" or in other words "Su's Aid to Thu for Thu's Raking."  Akkadian ḪN meaning "Intimidation." Akkadian SK.MM meaning Weaving.Fertility-Fluid. Combined this means: " Su's Aid to Thu for Thu's Raking the Intimidation which is Weaving the Waters."  This is a longer but not yet complete version of the 2nd poem called Brot af Sigurðarkviðu. This poem focuses on the wooing of Brynhildr (Akkadian BR.IN.ḪL.D with Indo-European -R meaning Seer.Moon-Eye.Healer.Manifester" or in other words "Seer of Su's Healing for Life-Manifestations" who had never known either ill or sorrow. but fate would intervene with the rivalry of two brothers.
  24. Helreið Brynhildar: Akkadian Ḫ.LR.ID meaning "Hu.Diversion.Life-Channel." Akkadian BR.IN.ḪL.D with Indo-European -R meaning Seer.Moon-Eye.Healer.Manifester. Combined they are: "Hu's Diversion of Life-Channels for the Seer of Su's Healing for Life-Manifestations." The poem deals with how the dead Sigurd and Brynhildr are burnt on two pyres with Brynhildr who lying in wagon. for taking her to the afterlife. During this journey, she passes the house where lived a woman called Gýgr (Akkadian G.IG plus Indo-European -R meaning Energizer.Selu's-Eye" where the goddess Selu (Selene) represents the celestial light motion power source. Her eye is the bright part of the moon. As an "energizer" this woman is likely a witch.
  25. Dráp Niflunga: Akkadian DR.P meaning "Form.Opening."  Akkadian N.LW.NG meaning " "Revealing.Love's.Coast."  Akkadian NW.LN.G meaning Abandoned.Imager.Energy.  Combined this is "Revealing Love's Coast with Abandoned Imager Energy." This is a short prose text about Gunnar and Hogni arranging a marriage which goes wrong and gets them both killed. Gunner (Akkadian G.NN. plus Indo-European -R meaning Energy.Revealer) and Hogni (Akkadian Ḫ.GN meaning "Hu.Energy.Revelations"  
  26. Guðrúnarkviða 2; Akkadian G.ṬR.NR.K.U.Ṭ meaning  "Energy.Writing.Revealed.Raking.By.Thu" or in other words "Energy's Written-Fate Revealed for Raking By Thu. In this text Gudrun (Akkadian G.DR.N meaning "Energy.Forms.Revealed"  or in other words "Energy for Form Revelations" finds her dead husband Sigurd (Akkadian S.GR.D meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations." In this second text Gudrun  recapitulates her life.
  27. Guðrúnarkviða 3; Akkadian G.ṬR.NR.K.U.Ṭ meaning  "Energy.Writing.Revealed.Raking.By.Thu" or in other words "Energy's Written-Fate Revealed for Raking By Thu. In this text Gudrun (Akkadian G.DR.N meaning "Energy.Forms.Revealed"  or in other words "Energy for Form Revelations" finds her dead husband Sigurd (Akkadian S.GR.D meaning Su's.Aid.Manifestations." In this third text Gudrun is accused of infidelity with king Theodoric (Þjóðrekr) of the Goths. Gudrun proves her innocence by picking up gems from the bottom of a boiling cauldron with her bare white hands. 
  28. Oddrúnargrátr: Akkadian AD.DR.N.RG.RT with Indo-European -R ending meaning "Observer.Forms.Revelations.False.Setter" or in other words "Observer of Form Revelations by False Settings." The main content of the poem is the lament of Oddrún (Observer of Form Revelations) for Gunnarr ("Energy Revealer" from Akkadian G.NN-R)   her lost and forbidden love. The poem is well preserved.
  29. Atlakviða: Akkadian A.TL.K.U.Ṭ meaning "That.Mound-Power.Involvement.By.Thu" where mound power is the power of pregnancy representing either a swollen belly or swollen breast. Burial mounds were made to mimic this life power correspondences. Yet Thu is a motion/energy power who is only indirectly involved with life. The story is about how Atli (Akkadian A.TL meaning "That.Mound-Power) sends a messenger to Gunnarr and his younger brother Högni. The messenger says that Atli is inviting the brothers to his court and offering them great riches. The brothers are skeptical of the offer since they already have an exceedingly great treasure of gold. Confirming their suspicions is a ring sent by their sister Guðrún, Atli's wife, with a wolf's hair wrapped onto it. Atli obviously plans treachery but Gunnarr still decides to take up the offer, vowing that if he doesn't return no-one will benefit from his riches.  This text is similar in theme to Dráp Niflunga (entry 25).
  30. Atlamál: Akkadian A.TL.ML meaning "That.Mound-Power.Conterbalancing." This text is similar to Atlakviða but greater in length and in a different style.
  31. Guðrúnarhvöt: Akkadian G.ṬR.N.RḪ.UT meaning "Energy.Writing.Revelations.Annointed.Weaver" or in other words "Energy's Writing-Fate Revelations Anointed by Ayu." where "weaver" is an epithet for the life weaving network goddess Ayu (Ishtar, Inanna, etc). This text is about Gudrun, wife Sigurd and their daughter Svanhild. who had married king Ermanaric (Jörmunrekkr), but betrayed him with the king's son, Randver. Furious Ermanaric hanged his own son and had Svanhild trampled to death by horses. Gudrun wants to avenge her daughter and she agitates her sons Hamdir and Sörli, by telling them about her fate. They depart for their fateful vengeance, a story that is told in the Hamðismál, the last poem of the Poetic Edda. 
  32. Hamðismál: Akkadian ḪM.Ṭ.S.ML meaning "Paralysis.Thu.Su.Counterbalance" or in other words "Counterbalancing the Paralysis of Thu By Su. " This story is about attempted vengeance by the sons of Gudrun who end up dead. The son's names are Hamdir/Hamþir (Akkadian ḪM.D with Indo-European -R ending meaning Paralyzer.Manifestations) and Sörli: Akkadian SR.L meaning "Impulsive.Lack"


BBC (Feb 15, 2016) Why is the UK still printing its laws on vellum? Online at:

List of Codex Regius Texts:

Page 95 of the Hauksbók which is telling the tale of Eric the Red. Photo from Wikimedia Commons at:

Hauksbók Compliation (1350-1400 CE)

(June 29, 2023) Hauksbók or Book of Haukr is a 14th century Icelandic compilation of older texts created by Haukr Erlendsson. Significant portions of it are lost, but it contains the earliest copies of many of the texts. Many of its stanzas came from the Prose Edda (1300-1350). The order and number of the stanzas varies in these sources. Some editors and translators have further rearranged the material.

Most of the writing of the Hauksbók is in Haukr's hand. Letter style evidence allowed Professor Stefán Karlsson, director of the Árni Magnússon Institute for Icelandic Studies, to date the manuscript to between 1302 and 1310 (so add 50 years). The book contains versions, often the only or earliest extant versions, of many Old Icelandic texts, such as Fóstbrœðra saga, the Saga of Eric the Red, Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks, and Völuspá. Haukr tended to rewrite the sagas that he copied, generally shortening them.

In addition, Haukr Erlendsson wrote "Hauk's Annals," which chronicled events of his lifetime and a handbook on Norse law.



AM 371 4to

  1. (1r-14v): Landnámabók
  2. (15r-18v): Kristni saga

AM 544 4to

  1. (1r-14v): encyclopaedic information drawn from various sources, on geography, natural phenomena, and Biblical stories
  2. (15r-19v): encyclopaedic information drawn from various sources, on philosophy and theology
  3. (20r-21r): Völuspá
  4. (22r-33v): Trójumanna saga
  5. (34r): a text called 'Seven Precious Stones And Their Nature'
  6.  (35v): Cisiojanus (a versified Latin enumeration for remembering the church festivals throughout the year)
  7. (36r-59r): Breta sögur, including Merlínússpá
  8. (60r-68v): two dialogues between the soul and the body
  9. (69r-72v:9): Hemings þáttr Áslákssonar
  10. (72v:9-76v): Hervarar saga ok Heiðreks
  11. (77r-89v:35): Fóstbrœðra saga
  12. (89v:35-93r:17): Algorismus
  13. (93r:17-101v:24): Eiríks saga rauða
  14. (101v:25-104v:17): Skálda saga
  15. (104v:18-105r:21): Af Upplendinga konungum
  16. (105r:21-107v): Ragnarssona þáttr
  17. (107v): Prognostica Temporum

AM 675 4to

  1.     Elucidarius


Jakobsson, Sverrir (2007) Hauksbók and the Construction of an Icelandic World View. Online at:

List found at:

Video by Old Norse expert Jackson Crawford.

Poetic Edda Collection

(June 29, 2023) All Old-Norse poems seem to be grouped into the Poetic Edda. Hence they are found in a variety of sources. These poems are based upon alliteration instead of ryhme. Alliteration is the conspicuous repetition of initial consonant sounds of nearby words in a phrase. A familiar example is "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers." 

This sort of poetic structure was common in early Norse/Germanic. This includes Old English epic Beowulf, as well as most other Old English poetry, the Old High German Muspilli, the Old Saxon Heliand, the Old Norse Poetic Edda, and many Middle English poems such as Piers Plowman, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, and the Alliterative Morte Arthur.

Most Eddic poems are in fornyrðislag ("old story metre"), while málaháttr ("speech form") is a common variation. The rest, about a quarter, are composed in ljóðaháttr ("song form"). The language of the poems is usually clear and relatively unadorned. Kennings are often employed, though they do not arise as frequently, nor are they as complex, as those found in typical skaldic poetry.