Acropolis Calf-Bearer Text (480 BCE)

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Letter assignments added by Olmsted. The text style is a mix of Etruscan and Aegean.

The body of this statue was found on the Athen’s acropolis in 1864. Its base with the feet was found later in the same general area in 1887. Consequently, they are assumed to go together. Its style is the Kouros style popular before the golden age of Athens between 480 - 404 BCE. It is now located in the Acropolis Museum in Athens at

Calf-Bearer Text Prior To Persian Occupied Athens (480 BCE)

(Jan 28, 2023) 

Translation in Akkadian (Med Text 6.1)

(read right to left. Capital letters on stone. Small inner vowels inferred)
  1. [1] Mu  Ba'u  Zu  PaMu.  EṬu  EKu  EMu  |  Ḫu'u  [2]W  Le'u

In English

  1. [word] is nesting the emanation. of night-noises.  Darkness supervises starvation |  Astrological-owls [1 or 2 words] astrological-powers


In September 480 BCE Persian king Xerxes I joined by many Greeks north of Attica, burned Athens and destroyed the old Acropolis. This destruction was one component of the Greek - Persian War which began in 492 BC as the culmination of the civil strife caused by the drought of 499 and the resulting Ionian revolt. The war lasted until 449 BC. 

For Reference: Early Mesopotamian Calf-Bearer (3300 BCE)

(Dec. 29, 2022) Black Hematite (hard iron oxide) cylinder seal showing images of wealth surrounding two people approaching the god AN.  At the top left is and image of the full moon surrounded by stars. Below that are swords pointing downward in a sign of peace. Between the deity and the humans is a plow. A gazelle as a symbol of the land's prosperity is on the shoulders and at the feet of the last human. It reads:

  1. Pests milk the kingdom
  2. AN is making wealth abundant so rejoice
  3. Serve wisdom

Lexicon used for this translation: About This Early-Sign Sumerian Lexicon  

Seal now at: Staatliche Museen zu Berlin, Vorderasiatisches Museum (State Museums in Berlin, Museum of the Near East) Identification number: VA 00243. Seal online at: