Witchcraft Symbols

Witchcraft Pentacle

The Pentacle is a five pointed woven star within a circle. The circle represents the bounded infinity of eternity. One can go round and round forever yet it is spatially finite. The five pointed star within the circle represents the five appendages of humans with our two arms, two legs, and one head. Yet it is also a star so it links earth bound humanity with the spiritual realm. Finally the star is woven having its spokes cross above and below others in a cloth or network pattern. This represents the connectivity of all things. 

Triple Moon

This symbol originated in the imaginative writing of Robert Graves in his 1948 book "The White Goddess: a Historical Grammar of Poetic Myth." It was adopted by the Wiccan movement to represent the Goddess in her three forms of Maiden-Mother-Crone. The number three is a Pagan sacred number because it represents connection by having a connective middle number (1-2-3). Three is the number of layers in the Ancient Pagan Paradigm. From that came the triple deities existed in ancient times which includes the Christian Trinity of Father-Son-Holy Spirit and the earlier Roman triple Goddess of Hecate-Minerva-Persephone (referenced in the Roman book The Civil War by Lucan).

Triple Moon Pentacle

This combination sign of Wicca and Witchcraft is becoming more popular.

Earliest Pentacles Are From Pagan Israel (700 and 587 BCE)

Pentacle on Jug Handle From Jerusalem

(May 21, 2024)  The pottery jug handle was found by a collector sometime prior to 1927 when it was purchased by the British Museum. The collector claimed it came from the Ophel in Jerusalem. Consequently, its date is  uncertain.  The Ophel is the side of the hill leading up to the temple mount. The British Museum  Registration number is 1927,0530.83. 


Close-Up of Pentacle From Jerusalem

(May 21, 2024) The British Museum claims it can read the letters and that they spell out y-r-sh-l-m. Since one can see that all the letters are rubbed out except for M and N in the lower left this claim is just more fake history put out by the Bible propagandists. Significantly, these letter shapes date the text to the Kingdom of Judah which existed between 700 and 587 BCE. These letter styles are definitely not from the Persian Period. See Levant Letter chart.

The British Museum  Registration number is 1927,0530.83. 


First Pentacle known to history is shown on the left. It is on a lintel on a synagogue in Galilee
The first Pentacle known to history is shown on the left. It is on a lintel on a synagogue in Galilee dating to 375 BCE. Galilee was the center of mystic Judaism at this time because it was on the magic trail trade route between Egypt and Mesopotamia (below). (photo by Olmsted 2019)
Location of Caesarea Marittima at end of magic trail

Pentacles Became a Part of Jewish Mysticism And From There Entered Europe as An Occult Symbol

(July 3, 2022) The first ever Pentacle was found on a synagogue lintel in Capernaum dating to 375 BCE (Loffreda 1985). Capernaum was located along the Magic Trail (figure 5). This was a Roman era trade route established by Herod the Great (reigned 37–4 BCE) with his building of the port city of Caesarea Maritima for connecting Egypt with Mesopotamia. This is how Herod acquired most of his wealth for his building projects including the Jerusalem Temple.

 Its five points of this star represent the five points of the human body (two arms, two legs, one head) but as indicated in the Capernaum image the star is also associated with the five planets shown as dots between the points (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn). Thus the Pentacle represents the connection between humans and the astrological night sky.

This connection correspondence is reinforced by the use of an intertwining rope to make the star image. Notice that each arm of the star goes under or over the other arm.

 Capernaum was also home to the adult Jesus between 20 and 30 BCE when the trade route had just opened up and new deep magic ideas were coming into Galilee.


Loffreda, Stanislao (1985) Recovering Capharnaum . Edizioni Custodia Terra Santa, Gerusalemme (Jerusalem)
Gateway Star surrounded by 6 dots
Top shows a Gateway Star surrounded by 6 dots which probably represent seeds although that is not certain (Olmsted personal photo 2019). 
Gateway Star surrounded by 6 fountains
This photo shows a different gateway star having fountains representing divinely generated fertility fluids spurting from it (Loffreda 1985)

Life Power Gateway Star

(July 3, 2022) The Gateway Star symbol is composed of two intertwined triangles. The triangle has been a symbol for a door or gateway since the first alphabet. It is one of the earliest representations of the letter "D" which originated from the Akkadian word "daltu" meaning "door." The Greek letter "delta" is also a triangle.​

The gateway star is the union of two doorways. The upside down triangle comes from the female pubic triangle which typically represents mother earth. The right-side up triangle represents the masculine Divine realm. Thus their union forms the gateway to the life-growth powers of the Ancient Pagan Paradigm. Yahweh belongs to this class. (contrast this to the Pentacle which is the gateway for the motion powers).

During the late 1600's the Gateway Star started to be placed on synagogue walls in Europe during a revival of Jewish mysticism. Only then did it start to be called the "Star of David" or "Shield of David" by those unaware of its mystic significance. In 1897, with the intertwining of its lines eliminated, it was chosen as the central symbol on a flag at the First Zionist Congress.

Network Knot Symbols (200 CE)

(July 3, 2022) These became the "Celtic Knots"

2-Ring Knots at Bignor Roman Villa in England

2-Ring Knots at Bignor Roman Villa in England (250 CE)

Knots are representations of the life network first appeared on the margins of the Roman empire starting in 200 CE. No such knots are seen at either Herculaneum or Pompeii when they were buried in volcanic ash (79 CE).
3-Ring and 2-Ring Knots at Aquileia Basilica Mosaic near Venice Italy

3-Ring and 2-Ring Knots at Aquileia Basilica Mosaic near Venice Italy (375 CE)

Aquileia Basilica Mosaic near Venice Italy showing a 3-ring knot in the middle. Its is dated to 375 CE. This basilica was funded by the new Christian Roman Emperors. 
Inserted into the mosaic after it was finished was a Latin memorial to the church's founder which reads "Blessed are you Theodore who with the help of God and the flock entrusted from the top you have completed all this work dedicated to the glory of God almighty."
3-Ring Knot on Synagogue Lintel in Capernaum Israel

3-Ring Knot on Synagogue Lintel in Capernaum Israel (375 CE)

Another 3-ring knot on the Capernaum synagogue lintel dating to 375 CE. After starting out as rather simple knots they soon became more complex and focused on the number 3. A simpler 3-cornered (not ringed) knot is today's triquetra.
(Olmsted personal photo 2019).


This symbol is the end product of the long lineage of connective knots and it first appears in Medieval Christian Ireland. A knot is connective because it is composed of one or two intertwined ropes. Here on rope forms a circle representing bounded infinity while the other one forms a triple pointed knot.

Crown Anemone Poppy

These flowers are found along the Mediterranean coastline. Its red color would have represented blood and so corresponded to the life-growth spiritual power. This is why red poppies are still used to remember fallen war veterans. This flower is found on the Great Whitcombe floor mosaic in England and on the walls of the Apostle Peter's house in Capernaum. The early Christians also adopted it to represent the blood of Christ before that role was taken over by the bigger red Lilly.

Whitcombe Floor Mosaic

Whitcombe Floor Mosaic in Britain. It dates to between 250 and 400 BCE. The two handled wine drinking cup in the center is called a skyphos and which was passed around at dinner parties. The other images are the Crown Anemone, the 4-sided star-square representing earthly life-growth powers, and the 8-sided lucky star.
Online at: https://www.english-heritage.org.uk/visit/places/great-witcombe-roman-villa/history/

Minor Symbols Adopted by Paganism Which Are Not Historically Accurate

Ronald Hutton is a well respected historian of modern and medieval Paganism. Here he goes into the history of some minor symbols used in the past by Pagans which turn out not to be Pagan after all.