Med 37 Runestone of Bensafrim (499 BCE)

Original runestone was sandstone, measuring 1.34 X 0.65 X 0.15 meters This is a replica of the stele of Bensafrim, Lagos, Portugal; 135x75 cm. Museum of Southwest Writing, Almodôvar. The original is in the Museum of Figueira da Foz. Photo by Angel M. Felicisimo at:

Runestone of Bensafrim - Portugal

(August 29, 2023) The original stele was discovered in 1882 in the town courtyard centered around the Old Fountain of Bensafrim, Portugal by archaeologists Estácio da Veiga and Santos Rocha. Bensafrim is a former civil parish in the city of Lagos on the southern coast of Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Bensafrim e Barão de São João.

The runes T and E are unique (so far) in that their cross lines are doubled. In contrast, Ḫ has no cross lines being just a box.

Its find was published by J. Leite de Vasconcellos in "The Portuguese Archaeologist III, 7. 1893."


Photo of original stele as published by J. Leite de Vasconcellos in 1893.

(August 29, 2023)

Translation of Outer Text in Akkadian (Med Text 37.1)

(read left to right. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Vowels are italic bold) 
  1. Lu  TeṬu  Tu  ḪiTu  Nu  Mu.  MuRu  AḪu  TuKu  Tu.  APu  AMu.  ANu  Gu  ALu.  E'u  LeTu  ZiTu.  
  2. Nu  A  Ne'u.  Nu  A  Pa'u.  Gu  A  Qu.  MaNu  MaMu.  Nu  Zu  Tu  ITu  Ḫu.  
  3. Tu  MaMu  E'u.  Ru  TaṢu  A  Re'u.  A'u  E  AŠu  MaMu.  Tu  TeNu  MaMu.   (The ayin /'/ is an /A/ when it begins a sentence)
(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English

  1. Lack of earth-water is due to astrology-magic joining the Revealer (Yahu) to the fertility-fluids. Rainstorms are attended by discipline for astrology-magic.  Veil the Reed-Boat (Ayu).  Considerations (focused emotions) can energize Alu.  Yahu (E') is being split-off from proper-allocations. 
  2. Reveal those affections (with emotion magic).  Reveal those network-bird-powers. Energize those life-thread-powers.  Support the waters.  Reveal the emanations with astrology-magic which foreshadow Hu.
  3. Astrology-magic can water Yahu (E').  Eagle-vultures can fool these shepherding-powers. Motion-powers are not doing the spewing-forth of the waters. Astrology-magic can replace the waters.