Norwegian Eggja Runestone Translation -600-700 CE

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Close-up around the horse head on the Eggja stone from Sogndal, Norway. Photo from a news report on the nearby discovery of Viking era blacksmith tools:

Picture of the full Eggja runestone. The rune slab itself is approximately 1.6 meters long, 0.7 meters wide and 0.1 meters thick.  From Norderg (2016).


Nordberg, Andreas (2016 in Swedish) Did Odin come to Eggja? An alternative interpretation of the Eggjasten inscription. In War and peace in Vandal and Viking age Traditions. Online at:

Finding the Runestone

 The runestone in Eggja was found on a ridge during spring plowing of a field during the summer of 1917. The archaeological investigation took place in the autumn of the same year. The stone had been laid as a roof slab over a burial site which had mostly eroded away beneath the slab. The runic text faced downwards. In the grave was found a heavily corroded iron knife and a fire-steel, as well as small corroded iron fragments and some small pieces of decayed wood. 

The responsible antiquarian Haakon Shetelig emphasized that this type of find-poor flatland graves in Western Norway was characteristic of the 6th century. This dating was also supported on stylistic grounds by the horse depicted on the stone. No remains of a buried individual were recovered, but based on similar graves from the same period, Shetelig was able to conclude that the knife and fire-steel findings indicated that the burial was male. However, he did not think he could say much more about the burial site itself, as it was heavily damaged at the time of the examination. 

(June 13, 2023) Drawing from Norderg (2016). This runic text consists of approximately 200 signs in 3 rows which makes it Norway's longest. The stone is now at the University Museum of Bergen. Letter assignments by Olmsted

Translation in Akkadian (Rune Text 9)

(read left to right. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Vowels are italic bold) 
  1. [2] Tu  Ku.  Ṭu  Su  Bu.  Tu  Ṭu  Zu.  Mu  A[2].  Pu  Lu  Ṣu.  Ṭu  Nu  Mu  Du.  Ṭu  IṢu  Ku.  Ṭu  IBuṬu  IBu'Su  Ṣu  'Du.  ṬaḪu  A  Tu  Ya.  Ḫu  ARu  Tu.  Le'u.  Bu  Ku.  Pu  Ṣu  Ḫu. Ṭu  [ 7 ]Q  Šu  'Q.  Tu  Ṭu  EYu  ZaRu  Lu.  'L [4] Ṭu  AYu  Ṣu.  Zu  AMu  Ṣu.  Pu  Nu  Mu.  E'u  Ku  Qu.  YaHu [6] Š [1] GPTṢ [1] (Rune 9.1)
  2.  [too many missing letters to read] (Rune 9.2)
  3. Tu  Ya.  Zu  Za'u  Gi.  A  Za'u  Qu  AKu.  Tu  Ya.  Zu Ṭu  Ku.  MaZu  Qu  Ṭu.  ITu  Zu  Ka'u. Su  ITu  T[4 or 5 letters] T  [1].  LaTu  Ya  ReYu.  Gi  Qu  ILu.  Ṣu  Pu  TaLu.  Gi  Ṭu  Ša  Ya (Rune 9.3)

(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English

  1. [word] is involved with astrology-magic. Thu is nourished by Su. Astrology-magic is emanated by Thu.  Fertility-fluids [2 words].  Openings are lacking activity-levels.  Thu is being revealed by the fertility-fluid's manifestations.  Thu is making-scarce the involvement (of motion powers with life powers).  Thu is the enemy.  Thu is the enemy.  Celestial-healing can be activated by the Observer (Su).  The near-realm (mortal realm) does not craft-astrological-magic for that.  Hu is being controlled by astrological-magic. Astrological-powers are involved with nourishments.  Openings are being activated by Hu. Thu [missing words] is being similar to expectations. Astrology-magic is not Thu.  Is not the distribution (of fertility fluids) lacking?  Alu [2 or 3 words]. Thu activates Ayu. Emanations activate the Reed-Boat (Ayu). Openings reveal fertility-fluids. Yahu (E') is being involved in the threads. Yahu (YH) [missing words]
  2. [too many missing letters to read]
  3. Don't craft-astrology-magic. Emanations energize the baker (Hu). Those emanations are threaded by emotion-owls. Don't craft-magic. Emanations involve Thu. Refuse the threads of Thu. Omens prod emanations. Su's omens .[uncertain words]. Don't split-off the shepherds (emotion magic crafters). Energy is threading the high-powers. Activity-levels open the mounded-one (Ayu).  Energy is not the same as Thu