Life Source Goddess - Hekate
Druid Goddess Comparisons
Life Source Goddess (Outer Layer)
Symbols: under-dome, arms across or on stomach to form under-dome shape
Epithet: (none known yet)
Ayu (Inanna, Ishtar, Astarte, Artemis, Hathor)
Life Connective Goddess (Middle Layer)
Symbols: crescent moon, wings, bees, hands just under breasts
Epithet: Reed-Boat, Opener, one of the "Controllers" (along with other mid-layer powers)
Asher (Asherah, Venus)
Life Manifestation Goddess (Inner Layer)
Symbols: hands on breasts with upward angled arms
Epithet: (none known yet)
Selu (Salu, Selene)
Motion Source Goddess (Outer Layer)
Symbol: glowing things, heavenly bodies in the night sky. Air, feathers, song birds, Hands pointing upward
Epithet: (none known yet)
This is a rare unicorn seal from Harappa has both the upper and lower sky-shell which is shown as a chalice. This seal was found in the central area of Mound E and dates to Period 3B or early 3C, around 2450-2200 BC.
(image from https://www.harappa.com/)
(Jan 29, 2023) Hekate is preserver and recycler of life powers created by Alu and passed down to the earth by Hu's life network as fertility-fluids. As such she represents the dark under-dome which is also the home of dead souls/spirits. She is associated with dark caves, subterranean waters, and deep pools. She is a part of the balance of life with the middle layer sun god Hu whose transmited fertility-fluids are manifested as light and heat. In the right amount they produce prosperity and healing but too much and they produce drought and death.
Hekate is an Akkadian word from He.Kate meaning "Hu's depleting power" or "the power which depletes Hu") The /e/ suffix indicates the deity's power is being referenced and not the persona. The following are the Lexicon entries:KT [Akkadian katû] Life source goddess Kate (Hekate), depletion (noun), to deplete (verb) - She acts more as the recycler and preserver of life powers instead of as a creator like her masculine complement Alu.Ḫ [Akkadian Ḫu] god Hu – the masculine deity which represents Atu's healing sun form powers (light, heat) as opposed to his chaotic storm form powers (rain). Hu also associates the motion powers with the life powers to move the fertility fluids through the network. Hu’s epithet is often HL meaning “bright one” which is also the source for the Greek sun god word “Helios.”
Greek writer Hesiod (500 BCE) in his book Theology says this about Hekate starting in line 404:Again, Phoebe came to the desired embrace of Coeus. Then the goddess through the love of the god conceived and brought forth dark-gowned Leto, always mild, kind to men and to the deathless gods, mild from the beginning, gentlest in all Olympus. Also she bore Asteria of happy name, whom Perses (Destroyer) once led to his great house to be called his dear wife. And she conceived and bore Hecate whom Zeus the son of Cronos honored above all. He gave her splendid gifts, to have a share of the earth and the unfruitful sea. She received honor also in starry heaven,  and is honored exceedingly by the deathless gods.
For to this day, whenever any one of men on earth offers rich sacrifices and prays for favor according to custom, he calls upon Hecate. Great honor comes full easily to him whose prayers the goddess receives favorably, and she bestows wealth upon him; for the power surely is with her.
... and to those whose business is in the grey discomfortable sea, and who pray to Hecate and the loud-crashing Earth-Shaker, easily the glorious goddess gives great catch, and easily she takes it away as soon as seen, if so she will. She is good in the byre (cow shed) with Hermes to increase the stock.
Online at: https://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0130%3Acard%3D404
Photo: Don Hitchcock at Don's Maps, 2008 online at: https://donsmaps.com/venusindex.html)
Hekate - White Venus (30,000 to 10,000 BCE)
(July 3, 2022) The earliest representations of a goddess are the Venus figurines from the Mesolithic period.
About 90% of all Venus figurines start out white carved from limestone, bone, or ivory, Some percentage of these were colored red with red ocher to indicate their life power.
Philistine Gath (Tell es-Safi) Red Bowl Held Food Offerings for Hekate - 1000 BCE
(Jan 29, 2023) This previously untranslated Alphabetic Akkadian text was found at Tell es-Safi which was the Philistine city of Gath. This shard is from a bowl with a smooth red slip. It reads (right to left):
Translation in Akkadian (Levant Text 9)(read right to left. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)
- A Bu KaTe |
- Ku Bu
- This is for nourishing Kate (Hekate) |
- On account of nourishing t[ ]
This text was first reported in 2006 and published in 2008. It is on a type of pottery which belonged to to the time between the late Iron Age I to early Iron IIA. This dates it to about 1000 BCE. Gath was the reported home of Goliath in the Bible (1 Samuel 17).
This pottery shard was found in an industrial/commercial area as a cast-away on the floor of a heavily used room. Based upon the number of bones on the floor this room seems to have been a food preparation area. The bowl has a thin red slip which allowed the letters to be scratched with little effort.
ReferencesOlmsted, D.D. (August 2020-2) Three Religiously Themed Philistine Texts in Alphabetic Akkadian (1160-960 BCE). Humanities Commons Permanent URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.17613/yz0s-rh08. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/43968796/Three_Religiously_Themed_Philistine_Texts_in_Alphabetic_Akkadian_1160_960_BCE
Maeir, M. A., Wimmer, S.J. Zukerman, A. Demsky, A. (2008) A Late Iron Age I/ Early Iron Age II Old Canaanite Inscription from Tell eş-Şafi/Gath Israel: Paleography, Dating, and Historical Cultural Significance. Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. No. 351 pp. 39-71. Online at: https://www.academia.edu/1403842/A_Late_Iron_Age_I_Early_Iron_Age_II_Old_Canaanite_Inscription_from_Tell_e_-_afi_Gath_Israel_Palaeography_Dating_and_Historical-Cultural_Significance
Hekate is promoting Hostility and so Blocking Life Powers
(Feb 26, 2023)
Translation in Akkadian (Levant Text 27)(Read left to right because mirror image of its sealing. Capital letters on tablet. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Verb is italic bold)
- Lu TuŠu GaBu Nu (Levant Text 27.1)
- KaTe Nu Ya Esu (Levant Text 27.2)
- Lack of hostility reveals the cistern (life source waters of Alu)
- Kate (Hekate) is not revealing the percolation
Previous Hebrew Translation Attempt
The discovery report claims the letters are (letter differences in red):
- LTAR BN
Which makes the name:
- "Ikkar Ben
This is a failed translation due to the following:
- Incorrect letter assignments
- The last letter "S" is left out of the English translation
- Names are not a translation because they can be any cluster of letters
Borschel-Dan, Amanda (2019) Tiny First Temple find could be first proof of aide to biblical King Josiah.
Times of Israel , March 31. Online at: https://www.timesofisrael.com/two-tiny-first-temple-inscriptions-vastly-enlarge-picture-of-ancient-jerusalem/
Piacenza Liver Right Outer Section 6 (500 BCE)
Translation in Akkadian (Celt Text 1.5.6)(read right to left. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)
- KaTe Pu
- Kate (Hekate) is opening
Hecate from Sardinia (3200 - 2700 BCE)
Subterranean Water Connection Shown in Indus Valley Unicorn Bull Seals
This is unicorn bull seal (H97-3433/7617-01) dating to about 2200 BCE which is at the transition between Harappa Periods 3B and 3C.
Hekate Figurines from Cycladic Islands (3200- 2300 BCE)
The right one was originally missing its whole left arm and whatever the right hand was holding was broken off. Consequently, the snakes as well as the cat on top were added by the “restorer.” (Olmsted personal photo)
The left version is the only one which survived almost whole. She is represented as being similar to the Egyptian goddess Wadet with the cobra on top of a hat. The Egyptians and Minoans had extensive trade connections at this time. The bare breasts and no wings indicate a non-connective life power. Snakes by themselves symbolized the power of life and death.
Wadjet was the name for the feminine life-growth source power in Lower Egypt (Nile delta region). The upper and lower river regions of Egypt had different religious traditions until around the iron age (1150 BCE). Each region had their own set of deities which were later merged often with new deity names, the name which are popular today. Knowledge about these early deities is only found on the funeral texts written in hieroglyphics on various pyramids (called the Pyramid Texts).
Wadjet (Egyptian Wzt) means “lady of the plant” or “lady of the green” in Egyptian. Her temple was at the city of Buto in the Nile Delta. Significantly, Buto was divided into two parts named Pe and Dep. Wadjet was associated with Pe in the Pyramid texts. In the Middle and New Egyptian Kingdoms, Wadjet was often shown with the eagle-vulture goddess Nekhbet on the headdresses of pharaohs to form the Uraeus.
Hekate as a Snake Goddess is Not Representative of Minoan Culture
(July 12, 2022) The (two and only two) "Minoan" snake goddess were found in one of the Knossos palace's trash pit known as the east Knossos Temple repository. It contained various damaged ritual items used during this period. (Sinclair 2013):
- many fragments of faience figurines
- vessels with molded designs
- molded plaques of ‘votive robes’
- suckling goats
- flying fish
- a figure of eight shields
In addition, the repository contained stone libation bowls, a large quantity of colored sea shells, clay administrative sealings, a clay tablet, ivory inlays, bone, burnt maize and stag horns. All of which were placed under a jumble of soil, gold foil and some forty ceramic amphorae and jugs which were used to provide a date for the collection of between 1650 and 1600 BCE.