Alpine Vergiate Stela (500 BCE)

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela from 499 BCE blames astrological powers for a drought

This text was written in response to the 499 BCE drought and blames the high energy of the astrological powers for the misery. This Celtic text is a mix of Aegean and Etruscan indicating the Alpine Celts adopted their writing from these two sources. Yet it has a slightly different mix than Mezzovico Stela (Celt Text 2) indicating that text styles had not yet stabilized in this culture. Photo from Lexicon Leponticum (Text VA-6) with letter assignments by Olmsted.

Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela 499 BCE
Drawing of Alpine Celtic Vergiate Stela 499 BCE

Translation of Vergiate Stela

This was found by chance in February 1913 less than a kilometer south-east of the little church San Gallo di Ronchi, at the road from Vergiate to Cimbro in Lombardia, Italy. The slab lay 80 cm below the surface together with Roman potsherds and tiles suggesting it had been reused by Romans for something. It was broken when found. Casts were made soon after the discovery and reflect a considerably better state of preservation than the original today.  It has a height 223 cm, breadth 70 cm, width 20 cm. Now at: Museo civico archeologico di Villa Mirabello (Varese).

(Jan 27, 2023) The Po river valley came under the control of a Celtic tribe known  by the Romans as the "Insubres" around 600 BCE.  They sacked Rome in 390 BCE. Yet they were conquered by Rome in the battle of Clastidium (modern Casteggio) in 222 BCE but gained a brief period of freedom when Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in the Second Punic War (218–201 bc). The Insubres were finally subdued by Rome in 196 BCE and gradually lost their identity in the rise of municipal communities. They were granted Latin rights in 89 BCE and full Roman citizenship 40 years later.

Translation in Akkadian (Celtic Text 3)

(read right to left. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. Gi  ILu  Ku  UYu  :  
  2. Gi  Du  UYu  AM  : 
  3. Šu  EWu  :
  4. Ku  A  Du.  IŠu  E  :
  5. Ya  A  Ya'u ....

In English

  1. Emotional-Energy (emotion magic) for high-powers is involved with the misery : 
  2. Emotional-Energy for life-manifestations is making miserable the Reed-Boat (Ayu ):
  3. Same for the shaper (Yahu) :
  4. Involve those life-manifestation-powers.  Confuse nothing. :
  5. Do not those Yahu-powers (life form manifestation powers) .... [letters too destroyed to translate]


Lexicon Leponticum. Online at: