Alpine Stela of Vira Gambarogno (350 BCE)

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Stela of Vira Gambarogno horizontal view. Image from Lexicon Leponticum number TI·26. Letter assignments added by Olmsted.

Stela of Vira Gambarogno

(Jan 29, 2023) This was found in 1917 near Ticino, Switzerland. It is a gneiss stela measuring 105 cm × 43 cm × 5 cm. The date is based on the letter style showing a small double pronged "K."

The Po river valley came under the control of a Celtic tribe known  by the Romans as the "Insubres" around 600 BCE.  They sacked Rome in 390 BCE. Yet they were conquered by Rome in the battle of Clastidium (modern Casteggio) in 222 BCE but gained a brief period of freedom when Carthaginian general Hannibal invaded Italy in the Second Punic War (218–201 bc). The Insubres were finally subdued by Rome in 196 BCE and gradually lost their identity in the rise of municipal communities. They were granted Latin rights in 89 BCE and full Roman citizenship 40 years later.

Translation in Akkadian (Celtic Text 4)

(read right to left. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels)Mix of Etruscan and Aegean Island
  1. Ša   E  D'u  Mu  Gi  Ya  :
  2. Ku  Gi  A  LG   Bu

In English

  1. Correspondences are not bringing divine-powers.  Fertility-fluids are not being energized :
  2. Due to that energy, vibrations should be nourished


Lexicon Leponticum number TI·26.  Online at: