Old Norse Astronomy/Astrology

Bifrost as imagined by the artist Albu. Image from: https://www.pinterest.com/pin/438045501239584480/

Bifrost - Road to Asgard (The Source of Life Powers)

While not a constellation the rainbow is related. In the Eddas the rainbow is called "Bifrost" In the north-western European traditions the rainbow is the road to the sky realm. This road in Norse mythology called the road to Hel (Akkadian EL meaning "high powers" so not the Christian underworld at all).  The name Bifrost originates from two Indo-European words, bif, meaning "shimmering" or "trembling," and rost meaning "road." The spirit Heimdall is the guardian of Bifrost. He lives in a house ”high up in the sky.”  This indicates Bifrost is a rainbow.  

  • Heimdall:  Old Norse Heimdallr  having an Indo-European -R ending. "Heim" is Indo-European for "realm." The Akkadian part is DaLu" meaning "water-transport." So this means the "realm of the rain-bringers." As a realm it had to be guarded. When intruders were detected the resounding horn of thunder (Gjallarhorn) was sounded.

In the poetic Edda, Bifrost is described as a shimmering road and as the road to Asgard.

  • Asgard: Old Norse Ásgarðr: Akkadian AS.G.RṬ plus the Indo-European -R ending meaning "Those-Su-powered.energy. channelers." This is the community for all motion powers which bring such powers to earth. It is not a guardhouse (Indo-European word) as previously thought because its -R ending indicates it is an actor.  
The Greek constellation of Corona Borealis is the Norse constellation "Aurvandil's Toe." It's creation story is found in the Prosaic Edda.
Near the end of a fight between Thor and the giant Hrungne. Thor was injured when a small piece of stone got stuck in his head. In order to get it out, he sought help from a Vala, a type of oracle, named Groa. When Thor felt that the stone were coming out, he told Groa that he helped her husband Aurvandil, to escape from the land of the giants. During the escape Aurvandil froze his big toe, which Thor broke off and threw into the sky to become the constellation, Aurvandil's toe. This made Groa so happy that she forgot her magic.
”Aurvandil's Toe” is most likely the Corona Borealis because it is shaped like a toe. Another clue making this identification  likely is that the Corona Borealis rises in the spring. In ”Gesta Danorum" written by Saxo Grammaticus [4], one finds a story of a King, Horwendil, who is fighting a duel with a Norwegian king, Koller (IE meaning "cold"). The duel ends with Horwendil cutting off Koller's foot and thus killing him. This story is probably based on an old myth of the fight between seasons, making Koller's foot or “Aurvandil's toe” a sign of spring when summer overcome the cold of winter. 

Norse Constellation: Aurvandil's Toe

(August 3, 2023)  The Völuspa of the Eddas provides a story about the origin of the stars. The world was created from the body of the  Ymer (Akkadian IMu-er = "emotion-maker"). His skull forms the firmament and is held in place by four dwarves, where sparks from Muspellheim (Akkadian MS.PL-realm = "realm of the night.rulers") form the stars. Their place in the sky was determined by the gods and some were given paths they will roam.

Possible Constellation: The Eyes of Tjatse

In Skáldskaparmál, the story of Tjatse is told. Tjatse managed, with the assistance of Loki, to kidnap Idun, the keeper of the apples of youth, from Asgard. Loki managed to save her but was pursued by Tjatse who got killed. Tjatse's daughter Skade came and demanded compensation for her father. The compensation included among other things a husband. In addition Odin or Thor placed Tjatse's "eyes" in the sky.

  • Tjatse (Akkadian T.IT.S = Astronomy-magic.Omens.Su or "Astrological-omens from Su" where Su is the dark new moon god surround by the celestial light goddess Selene). So the eyes of Tjatse were the bright and new moons.


Jonas Persson (2003-2023) Norse Constellations. Online at: https://www.digitaliseducation.com/resources-norse.html

References used by Person:

Hydes star cluster is the head of The Greek constellation Taurus. In Norse culture is was seen as the mouth of a wolf constellation in which the wolf is facing up and left.
Location of Constellation Auriga above which is drawn as a Nordic  enclosure.  In contrast both Greeks and Latins saw it as as charioteer as drawn below.  It was called "Encloser of the Seer's Astrological Energy" in the Druid Akkadian of Norse Pagan culture.

Norse Constellations From Rimtöl Text

(August 4, 2023) Most Norse Texts use Latin and Greek names for the stars. Yet in Beckman and Kålund’s compilation [7] of Rimtöl they present five constellations that appear to have the Old Norse (Indo-European) names:


Beckman, N. and Kålund, Kr. (1914-16). Alfræði íslenzk: Islandsk encyklo-pædisk litteratur: II. Rímtöl [Encyclopaedic literature on the calendar]. s 48-53 (in Swedish).

Arcturus at mid latitudes at night.


Three star names have been identified due to their ending suffix "stjarna." The word "stjarna" now means "star" in Swedish although it derives from  the Akkadian phrase ST.IR.N meaning "Allocation.Astrological-Power.Revelation" or "Revealer of an Astrological Power Allocation." 

Whether their claimed modern equivalents are true is more uncertain. These stars are: