Etruscan Tiber Valley  Translations (550 BCE)

For translation methodology see: How to Translate Alphabetic Akkadian Texts

Map showing the Etruscan lands prior to their take-over by the Romans
Map showing the Etruscan lands prior to their take-over by the Romans. From

Etruscan History

(Sept. 14, 2022) The Greeks called them Τυρρηνοί (Tyrrhēnoi) and earlier Τυρσηνοί (Tyrsēnoi). The Latins called them Tusci or Etrusci. This seems to derive from the Akkadian compound word târu.ṣi meaning "turners of activity-powers" in which "turning" is the process of shaping pottery and "activity" is the process of growing life. The Etruscans used magic to shape the powers of life.

The Etruscans gained their wealth from the mining and trade of copper and iron. Their commercial interests collided with those of the Greeks after Greeks were pushed from Anatolia by the Persians. These Greeks founded colonies along the coast of Sardinia, Spain and Corsica and what is now Marseille France in 600 BCE. This led the Etruscans to ally themselves with Carthage who also spoke Akkadian.

After the Battle of Alalia around 540 BCE Carthage managed to expand its sphere of influence at the expense of the Greeks.  Etruria regained control of the northern Tyrrhenian Sea with full ownership of Corsica at the cost of losing their southern colonies to Carthage. In 480 BC, Etruria's ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse in Sicily. A few years later, in 474 BC, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Etruria's influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened and the area was taken over by Romans and Samnites.

Eturia came into conflict with Rome beginning in 396 BCE with the conquest of Veii by Roman army under M. Furius Camillus. This pressure ended temporarily when in 387 BCE the Gauls under Brennus sacked the city of Rome and presumably much of Eturia. The large Ara della Regina temple in Tarquinia dating to the 500’s BCE was possibly damaged during this time because between 380 and 350 BCE it was reconstructed and expanded. 

Veii seems to have revolted bringing parts of Eturia into conflict with Rome once again between 358 and 351 BCE. The war ended with Veii and Caere coming under Roman domination permanently. Rome then turned its attention to expanding southward against the Samnites.  Etruscans seem to have started their last failed war with Rome around 311 BCE while Rome was involved in a southern Italian war. After that they were absorbed into Roman society.

French stamp showing portrait of Frenchman Guillaume Postel
French stamp showing portrait of Frenchman Guillaume Postel who based on the similarity of Etruscan and Paleo-Hebrew letters pushed for a Biblical history connection between the two. Biblical history was the only pre-Classical history known at the time. Image from Harari (August 2022).

Early Theory of Etruscan Connection with the Middle East

(August 20, 2022) In 1551 French expert on Near Eastern languages, Guillaume Postel, wrote a book on the Etruscans entitled De Etruriae regionis which was published in Florence, Italy in 1551. In Postel’s view, the Etruscans originated from a migration of Assyrians to Italy just after the Great Flood led by Noah, alias Janus. Janus was saved by virtue of his famous Ark and introduced Near Eastern beliefs into Italy


Harari, Maurizio (August 2022)  The ‘Biblical Origins’ of the Etruscans in the 16th Century CE and Their Impact on European Politics. Online at:
bronze plaque of Cortona with letter assignments
This bronze plaque of Cortona was found in a ditch alongside candelabra base shown below. It was found at località La Fratta, 2.8 km west of Cortona, Italy on September 14, 1840 (Modona 1977). The town of Cortana is on the upper regions of the Tiber River so it would have been taken over by the Latins around 550 BCE. It is now displayed at the Museo dell’Accademia Etrusca e della Città di Cortona. Image from van de Meer (2011). Letter assignments by Olmsted.
Bottom view of a bronze candelabra base called the Lamp of Cortona
Found with the plaque was this bronze candelabra  called the Lamp of Cortona. This is the view of its bottom. Both seem to be from an Etruscan temple devoted to the life powers. This temple apparently was under threat from the Latins (probably the city of Tibur) who were also expanding up the valley at the time. This threat is why these valuable objects were hidden away in a field.
The outer ring of this image is certainly celebrating the power of life which correlates well with the text. Yet its center shows a panting carnivorous sun at the center indicating it is a drought causing sun. This type of sun seems to have evolved into the Greek Gorgon.
This candelabra base and plaque was found by peasants at località La Fratta, 2,8 km west of Cortona, Italy on September 14, 1840 (Modona 1977). It is now displayed at the Museo dell’Accademia Etrusca e della Città di Cortona. Image from van de Meer (2011).

Etruscan Cortona Plaque Translation: Chaotic Emotions are Causing Drought (550 BCE)

(August 17, 2022) Based on letter "N" this dates to shortly after the composition of the golden Pyrgi foils putting it around 550 BCE. Compared to the Pyrgi foils, the letter the letters P, E, and I have been simplified. The letters P and E have one horizontal line removed while the I has its top and bottom horizontal lines removed.

Translation in Akkadian (Text Med 25)

(read right to left)
  1. Ṭu apu nu a : gi umu nu ya[bu] (Med 25.1)
  2. inu mubu e ilu : a Ṭu gi yabu (Med 25.2)
  3. mu Alu Ṭu nu (Med 25.3)

In English

  1. Thu is veiling these revealers (life manifestation powers) : Stormy emotion-energy is revealing the enemy (drought causing sun).
  2. The moon-eyes (magic crafters) are mobilizing none of the high-powers (astrological powers) : This of Thu (connective motion powers) is energizing the enemy
  3. Fertility-fluids are revealed by Thu Alu (life-empowered Thu)


van de Meer, Bouke (2011) The Etruscan Bronze Lamp of Cortona, its Cosmic Program and its Attached Inscription. Online at:
Modona, A. Neppi (1977) Cortona etrusca e romana nella storia e nell’arte, Firenze, p. 125-134.
 Leg of Etruscan bronze statue called Putto Graziani with letter assignments

Etruscan Bronze called Putto Graziani

It is now displayed at Museo Gregoriano Etrusco which is the Vatican Museum devoted to the Etruscan civilization.

Etruscan Boy Statue Text States that Motion and Life Powers Can Act Independently (600 BCE)

(August 22, 2022) This independence is the Aegean sub-culture view on relationship between the spiritual powers. In contrast the Phoenicians are always supportive of the magical motion powers and blame the life powers while the Israelites are supportive of the life powers and blame the magical motion powers.

This hollow cast bronze statue was found at Sanguineto, on the northern shores of Lake Trasimeno, in 1587 in the Tiber Valley.  Based on its artistic style some scholars dated it to about 200 BCE but its letter style points toward 600 BCE.

Translation in Akkadian (Text Med 26)

(read right to left)
  1. Su lu erru
  2. emu ša ebu
  3. zu anu 
  4. bu pu erru

In English

  1. Su can go without the enclosed-region (sky-shell and above)
  2. The supervisor (Ayu) can be similar to the sky-shell
  3. Eliminations can consider the filling (of invisible life forms)
  4. Nourishments can be opened by the enclosed-region

First line states that because Su is a motion power source and the  enclosed region is the life power source they can act independently of each other.

Second line states that Ayu is similar to the sky shell's network because she is the goddess power who edits its linkages.

Third line states that the editing of these network connection are done with considerations of what life forms need to be manifested on earth.

Fourth line states that nourishments for the earth can be provided by the life powers without the magical motion powers.

The Fake Translation Going Around 

Often online webpages will claim the translation is:  

Yet none of these sites provides a source for this translation. The reader can easily see that the claimed letters are nothing like what actually exists on the bronze statue. Finally, no such language as Etruscan exists because they spoke a dialect of Akkadian.