Farnese Hercules with "Glykon" Inscription, Greece 300 BCE

In 1546 the Farnese Hercules was found in the ruined Baths of Caracalla in Rome (built 206-216 CE). It is now at the Museo Archeologico Nazionale in Naples. It is 10 feet 5 inches high. 
Photo from Wikimedia Commons. Online at: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Herakles_Farnese_MAN_Napoli_Inv6001_n01.jpg
Location of Sikyon in Greece where Lysippos was born.

Farnese Hercules with "Glykon" Inscription, Greece 350 BCE

(January 5, 2024) This statue has a rare combination of Greek and Alphabetic Akkadian texts which was composed during the transition to Greek writing after 499 BCE during the Greco-Persian wars. It is also significant because it mentions Logos (Attunements). Because of this text, it is likely the original statue and not a later Roman copy as assumed. The text reads:


  1. Attunements (Logos) can weave the activity of revelations
  2. Hope for Hu can reveal those Yahu-powered nourishments 
  3. EPOIEI (Greek for "Do it")

This figure of the statue is identified as Hercules because he was leaning on a club having a lion head hanging from the handle. The lion's pelt is also drapped from the handle. Hercules was a fighter and defender of humans for the life powers represented by the sun and storm god Hu, life-network editing goddess Ayu, and life-form manifestation god of Yahu.

It is called "Farnese" after the rich Italian family who were looting the luxurious public Roman Baths built by Roman emperor Caracalla (dedicated in 216 CE) in 1546. His workmen brought this statue from Greece.  It had been broken into 3 main parts during one of the lootings of Rome as the western empire collapsed. The head, torso, and legs had to be reassembled. The right hand is still missing.

It is called "Farnese" after the rich Italian family who were looting the luxurious public Roman Baths built by Roman emperor Caracalla (dedicated in 216 CE) in 1546. His workmen brought this statue from Greece.  It had been broken into 3 main parts during one of the lootings of Rome as the western empire collapsed. The head, torso, and legs had to be reassembled. The right hand is still missing.

The sculptor of the original Weary Hercules was a Greek named Lysippos or one of his school. They were responsible for the change in art style from the Athenian classical style to this more realistic style seen in the Hellenistic age.  Lysippos was born at Sicyon on the northern coast of the Peloponnese around 390 BC This area was always allied with Sparta against Athens so his work tended to be counter-Athenian. He was a worker of bronze in his youth. He taught himself the art of sculpture, later becoming head of a school located at Argos and Sicyon. Commentators noted the coherent balance of his larger than life figures which were leaner than the ideal represented by Polykleitos of the Athenian school. His large statues also had proportionately smaller heads giving them the impression of greater height when looked at. He was famous for his attention to the details of eyelids and toenails.

His pupil, Chares of Lindos, constructed the Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World but one which no longer exists.

Other Ancient Copies Include:

References

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Farnese_Hercules

(December 30, 2023)  Letter style is Aegean Island (500-300 BCE). Text seems to be located on the side of the statue. If the top line is given Greek letter assignments instead of Alphabetic Akkadian it forms the word "Glycon" which was claimed to be the sculptor of this statue as a copy. Yet this interpretation leaves the other words undeciphered. Photo by Steven Zuker (2012). Online at: https://www.flickr.com/photos/profzucker/8478159723/in/photostream/

Translation of Front Face in Akkadian (Med Text 49)

(Read left to right. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Vowels are italic bold) 
  1. LaGu UKu Ṣu  Nu (Med 49.1) 
  2. AQu  Ḫu  Nu  A  Ya'u  B (Med 49.2)  
  3. EPOYEY (Med 49.3)  Greek word!
(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English

  1. Attunements (Logos) can weave the activity of revelations
  2. Hope for Hu can reveal those Yahu-empowered nourishments 
  3. EPOIEI (Greek for "Do it")

Previous Translation Attempt

The best explanation of the past was that the first line was signed by the artist named "Glykon" but even that word does not fully match the lettering. The other lines were not explained. 

Lysippos, Farnese Hercules

Farnese Hercules Sculpture in National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Italy.  Archaeological Museum of Naples. Speakers: Dr. Beth Harris & Dr. Steven Zucker.