Codex Runicus Pages 1 and 2

The Codex Runicus is now a part of the Arnamagnæan manuscript collection University of Copenhagen in Denmark. The collection in its entirety consists of approximately 3000 manuscript items, of which 1400 are in Copenhagen.
The collection is named after its founder, the Icelandic philologist and historian Árni Magnússon (Latinised as Arnas Magnæus, in Danish Arne Magnusson). Shortly before his death in 1730 he bequeathed his collection of manuscripts and printed books as well as his fortune to the University of Copenhagen, where he was professor of Danish antiquities.


Photos from: University of Copenhagen's Interactive Online Scan with Zoom:
Lexicon Used: Alphabetic Akkadian Lexicon - 4th Edition 2023. Online at:
Letter Chart Used: Rune (North European) Letters
Deity Summary: Ancient Pagan Paradigm

About Codex Runicus

(August 1, 2023) The codex Runicus is the only surviving book written in runes. This important book is a Druid philosophical text. It was found in 1505 and seems to be a copy of an original composed in 1190 CE. It has 100 pages in 14 layers. Prior to the translation of its first few pages it was thought to be a runic version of Danish law.

These Danish law books are in the old Norse/Germanic language and  were compiled in the 1200s. They represent the bulk of Nordic literature from the period 1200-1400. The Danish provincial laws consist of the Scanian Law (written between 1202 and 1216), the Jutlandic Law (issued in 1241) along with King Valdemar's Zealandic Law and King Eric's Zealandic Law. 

Like the lawbooks, this text was part of the writing project commissioned by Danish King Valdemar near the end of his life as indicated by some writing on page 1. King Valdemar 1 (born January 14, 1131; died May 12, 1182). He ended the eastern Baltic Wend threat to Danish shipping, won independence from the Holy Roman emperor, and gained church approval for the hereditary rule by his dynasty, the Valdemars. 

He was the son of Knud Lavard, duke of South Jutland, and a great-grandson of the Danish king Sweyn II. Valdemar won a 25 year civil war waged by competing contenders for the throne. After that he began a series of expeditions against the Wends aided by his foster brother Absalon whom he made bishop of Roskilde. By 1169 his forces had captured the Wendish stronghold of Rügen (now in Germany), which was incorporated into the diocese of Roskilde, and had stormed the Wend sanctuary at Arcona. A year later he was forced to divide his gains with his ally Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony.

Valdemar acknowledged the overlordship of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick I Barbarossa and accepted his antipope Victor IV (or V). This caused Denmark’s chief prelate Eskil, archbishop of Lund, to choose exile rather than oppose Pope Alexander III. After Valdemar and Bishop Absalon changed their mind and and acknowledged Pope Alexander in 1165, Eskil returned to Denmark. There he confirmed the canonization of the king’s father and anointed his son Canute VI as joint king (1170) inaugurating the hereditary rule of the Valdemars.

The letter style is a mix of coastal and Swedish inland style. The different letter types are used interchangeably.


Arild Hauge's scan:

University of Copenhagen's Interactive Online Scan with Zoom:

Page 1 of Codex Runicus

(July 23, 2023) The top runes seem to have written in 1569 when this copy was made. This was when Akkadian literacy no longer existed and someone was guessing at what the letters meant. This is a list of runes found in the book.

The lower text is in early Danish and it translates as:

  • This mandate was found by Lagus Scanit, Geoffroy of Odense (Goffovido da Odma), and Hufnhk (Hufnek) in 1505. Latin year 1190 from Valdemar 1. Danish illustrator, Winey William Wormy.

So, this text was found 1505. The original was completed in 1190 

Page 2 of Codex Runicus

(July 23, 2023) This text is a later than the main text. It exhibits the phrase making out of Akkadian words seen in the Eddas. These phrases became Scandinavian words in their own right as Akkadian literacy was forgotten.  

Translation of Lines 1 and 2 in Akkadian (Rune Text 29.1)

(read left to right. Capital letters on object. Small letters are inferred Inner vowels. Verbs are italic bold. The colons in the text are word separators) 
  1. PaLu  UṢu  Ṭu.LaBu  Zu.ILu.  IṬ.TaBu  ILu.Tu  Ṣu.EṬu.TaPu.Tu (Text 29.1.1)
  2.  ELu.Ru  Ṭu.ṢaBu.  LaṢu.GaPu  PaYu.Bu  APu.TaBu.  MaGi  TaBu.Pu.ṬaTu (Text 29.1.2)

(Dual use letters are E/H, I/Y, U/W, and '/A in which vowel appears at beginning of words except for Yahu which is keeping its traditional Hebrew transliteration)

In English

  1. The rule of the Originator (Su) is Thu's.lordship-over the emanation's.high-powers.   Omens.of-arousal of the high-power's.astrology-magic are activating.darkness.devoted-to.astrology-magic.
  2. The high-life-power's.eagle-vultures are Thu's.desire.  Influence-over.winged-ones.nourishment is being The magi's